|VACCINE ADJUVANT||vaccine components that, when appropriately formulated and combined with an antigen, direct the immune system to give an effective response while boosting the potency and longevity of the specific immune responses.|
|VARTM (Abbrev.)||VACUUM-ASSISTED resin transfer molding (VARTM) is an alternative to the open-molding processes where resin is applied on fiberglass or carbon fiber reinforcing materials by hand. In VARTM, which is sometimes referred to as infusion molding, the fiber reinforcement is laid over a mold and covered with a plastic bag. A vacuum line is tucked underneath the bag and draws resin from a reservoir on the opposite side of the mold, saturating the fiber.
|VASCULAR DAMAGING/TARGETING AGENTS (Oncology)||Agents that DESTROY & not just INHIBIT Blood Vessels near tumors. Angiogenesis Inhibitors may prevent tumors from growing but they do not destroy tumors.|
|VASCULAR OCCLUSION||Reducing or eliminating blood flow to an area of the body by blocking, or occluding, a blood vessel has become an accepted treatment option for a wide range of circulatory and internal organ diseases. Vascular occlusion can be used for a number of reasons including:
To reduce pressure on malformed ( fistular), weakened ( aneurismal ) or leaking blood vessels
To reduce blood supply to benign or malignant tumors or growths in the body
To reduce blood supply (and therefore the overall size) of an organ or area of the body prior to other therapies or procedures
To reroute blood supply to a different blood vessel or part of the body
Vascular occlusions were previously only accomplished by surgically closing, or ligating, the blood vessel. More recently, occlusions have been performed by releasing small wire coils at the point of occlusion, causing a clot to form, blocking the flow of blood. Frequently, several coils are required to occlude the vessel
|VEIN||blood vessel that returns blood (from the microvasculature throughout the body) to the heart; walls are thinner and less elastic than those of an artery|
|VENIPUNCTURE||puncture of a vein through the skin in order to withdraw blood for analysis or to start an intravenous drip or to inject medication or a radiopaque dye|
|Vertebroplasty||See Code 4009|
|VIBRATIONAL CIRCULAR DICHROISM||Type of vibrational spectroscopy that relies on the difference in a molecule s absorbance of left & right circularly polarized IR radiation. The technique combines the structural specificity of IR spectroscopy with the stereochemical sensitivity of circular dichroism. Measure
ment of VCD generates both IR & VCD spectra. Enantiomers yield identical IR spectra & identical but oppositely signed VCD spectra
|VIDEO GAME||A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device|
|VIRAL ENTRY INHIBITORS||Drugs that prevent HIV from getting its proverbial foot in the door of target cells.When a virus first encounters one of its cellular targets—a macrophage or T-cell—a viral surface glycoprotein called gp120 binds to CD4, a cell-surface receptor protein. This causes a conformational change in gp120 that facilitates a secondary interaction: binding of gp120 with a coreceptor.
TWO MAJOR CORECEPTORS used by HIV have been identified: CCR5 and CXCR4. Both are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). "In the early stages of infection, the strains of HIV that predominate use CD4 and CCR5 to access macrophages and T-cells
"As infection proceeds, other forms of HIV emerge, and they begin to utilize CD4 along with CXCR4. This often marks the transition from HIV infection to AIDS."
After attachment takes place, gp41, another component of the viral envelope complex, moves toward the target cell membrane, and a fusion peptide at the amino terminus of gp41 penetrates the membrane. Fusion, or melding of the viral and cell membranes, follows soon thereafter, and the target cell becomes infected.
There are a number of ways to interfere with the overall process of viral cell entry. One can try to block gp120-CD4 interactions, gp120-coreceptor binding, or gp41 interactions involved in membrane fusion
|VIRTUAL MICROSPOPY||method of posting microscope images on, and transmitting them over, computer networks. This allows independent viewing of images by large numbers of people in diverse locations. It involves a synthesis of microscopy technologies and digital technologies|
|VISCOSE||A viscous orange-red aq. soln. of Na cellulo
se xanthogenate obtained by dissolving wood pulp cellulose in NaOH soln. & treating with CS2
|VITAMIN D||A generic descriptor for all steroids that exhibit qualitatively the biological activity of CHOLECALCIFEROL; a group of fat-soluble vitamins, structurally related to the sterols, that are active in the prevn & cure of rickets. Since they can be derived from sterols by UV irradiation, vitamin D is not required in the diet if the organism has adequate access to UV light (present in sunlight). Bitamin D affects the absorption & deposition of Ca phosphate.|
|VITRECTOMY||Retinal Detachment Surgery|