T TOPPING (Positive Photoresist; Acid Generator) T-topping is problem associated with photoacid generator used in electro
nic semiconductor device's positive photoresists.
T-topping takes its name from the shape of test patterns of paralell trenches that researchers create in resist films to gauge performance. Ideally the trench is composed of perfectly paralell sides, with absolute 90 degrees angles defining the walls' junction with the bottom.
When T-topping occurs, the shape of the trench in cross section resembles two capital letter Ts (TT), with the top of the trench partially to completely closed over. T-topping can happen when there is a delay between exposure to UV light & baking of a wafer to consummate the reaction between protons & protected ester groups.
In that time, small amounts of amines that are always present in clean-room air can neutralize the protons at the very top of the resist film. The result is that the developer dissolves the resist down to the bottom of the trench, but leaves "caves" & "roofs" at the top.
One solution offered by Kyle W. Patterson, a graduate student in the Willson group (University of Texas, Austin), is a copolymer contg 10% of a free carboxylic acid. This acid content raises the background alkali soly., allowing dissolution of any neutralized surface. A resist so formulated shows no T-topping after a 100-min delay
TACHYPHYLAXIS A pharmacological phenomen in which the first, or the first few, doses of a drug produce a response & lead to establishment of resistance so that subsequent doses of the drug feil to elicit any further response
TACKIFIER (adhesives) Provides the IMMEDIATE stick in PSAs., attaching the prodt usually a label or tape to a substrate until an acrylic or synthetic rubber can supply the longer lasting bond
TALMUD é um registro das discussões rabínicas que pertencem à lei, ética, costumes e história do judaísmo. É um texto central para o judaísmo rabínico, perdendo em importância apenas para a Bíblia hebraica
TANAKH Tanakh ou Tanach (em hebraico תנ״ך) é um acrônimo utilizado dentro do judaísmo para denominar seu conjunto principal de livros sagrados, sendo o mais próximo do que se pode chamar de uma Bíblia Judaica.
TANDEM LESIONS two contiguously, damaged nucleotides in a single DNA strand
TARGET VALIDATION "One gene does not by any means equal one protein."

Because so many proteins are produced and because not all of them are "druggable"--capable of being used as selective drug targets--"it is very important early in the game to establish the validity of each target," Manoharan said. This vetting process is called target validation.

A failure to properly validate a target can be problematic. For example, Manoharan said, controlling PTEN, a lipid phosphatase that is a negative regulator of insulin signaling, would presumably make it possible to control diabetes. "It seems like a very attractive druggable target for a metabolic disease
TARGETING MOLECULE a protein or peptide which can be used to target sites in vivo, for example monoclonal antibodies.
TAXIS The movement of a cell or an organism in response to a stimulus such that the latter controls the direction of movement. The movement may be toward, or away from, the stimulus & is then referred as positive or negative taxis
TECHNOLOGY CYCLE TIME (TCT) Patent indicator measuring the median age of the U.S. patents cited in firm patents
TELECHELIC POLYMER polymers having terminal functional groups
TELOMER Oligomer with Terminal Reactive Functional Groups
TELOMERASE Cell enzyme related to maintenance of chromosome's normal length.
Cell enzyme that restores cell telomeres (ch
romosome endcaps), which get worn away with successive cell divisions.
Telomerase activity enhances the replicative lifetime of cells but can also potentially cause them to become cancerous
TELOMERES the protein-DNA assemblies found at the ends of chromosomes
TENTATIVE APPROVAL (Pharma.) FDA issues a tentative approval letter to a
generic product applicant when the patents on the original brand-name medicine have not yet expired. A product that has tentative approval cannot be sold in the USA
TERATOGEN An agent that causes birth defects
TERATOGENESIS damage to the embryo
TETRACYCLINES A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics obtained from various species of "Streptomyces". Tetracyclines contain four, linearly fused, six-membered rings; they inhibit protein synthesis in prokaryotes by binding to the ribosomes & preventing the normal binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site. Chlortetracycline (aureomycin) is produced by "Streptomyces aureofaciens"; oxytetracycline (terramycin) is produced by "Streptomyces rimosus" & tetracycline (achromycin; tetracyn) is obtained by reductive dehalogenation of chlortetracycline
TETRAZENE [4-Amidino-1-(nitrosamino-amidino)-1-tetrazene] H2N-C(=NH)-NH-NH-N=N-
Properties: Colorless fluffy solid; apparent d. 0.45 but yields a pellet of d. 1.05 under pressure of 3000 psi. Insoluble in organic solvents. Slightly hygroscopic
Derivation: Reaction of aminoguanidine salt with NaNO2
Use: Initiating explosive. Noncorrosive type
THALASSEMIA A heritable disorder characterized by a reduced rate of synthesis of > one of the globin chains of hemoglobin. The imbalance in globin chain production leads to precipi
tation of the excess chains, lowered hemoglobin levels (anemia), & reduced red blood cell survival. In alpha or beta thalassemia there is a deficiency of the alpha or beta globin chains resp. Absence of a chain is designated as alpha.0 or beta.0, resp., decreased synthesis of a chain is designated as alpha+ or beta+, resp. Homozygo
tes, with alpha.0 thalassemia exhibit a syndrome called Hydrops fetalis in which death occurs prior to or shortly after birth. The homozygous condition is known as thalassemia major & the heterozygous condition is known as thalassemia minor
- Therapeutic Drug &
- Companion Diagnostics Test
THERAPEUTIC CLONING Therapeutic cloning involves
- Extraction of genetic material from patient
- Formation of embryo
- Use of embryo's cells to form new tissues, genetically identical to those of
In last analysis, this type of procedure opens the possibility to create entire organs with the same genes as those of donor, eliminating risk of rejection
THERMAL TRANSFER IMAGING PRINTING The thermal transfer process is accomplished in a thermal transfer printer by applying a voltage to the printhead that consists of 200 to 600 resistive heating elements per linear inch of printhead (dpi-dots per inch). The resistive material is covered by a thin coating or "glaze" that protects the heating elements from abrasion as the thermal transfer ribbon makes contact with it.

The line of printhead elements is in direct pressure contact with the back side of the thermal transfer ribbon. The ink side of the ribbon is in direct contact with the receiver or label stock. This ribbon and receiver "sandwich" is driven by a rubber-covered platen roller under the printhead print line at a speed consistent with the heating cycle time of the printhead.

Heat from the printing elements raises the ink to a temperature above its melting point. At this time the ink from the ribbon transfers to the receiver and adheres to it. Together, the ribbon and receiver continue to move from under the printhead for a short distance before separation of ribbon and receiver occurs. It is at this point that the image is formed
THERMISTOR An electronic device that makes use of the change of resistivity of semiconductor with change in T
THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMER have the properties of thermoset rubbers but can be processed as easily as thermoplastics.

Blend of TP Polymer & Elastomer
THERMOPLASTIC VULCANIZATE a thermoplastic elastomer with a chemically crosslinked rubbery phase, produced by dynamic vulcanization
THRESHOLD CARCINOGEN Chemicals that triggers cancer through cell proliferation rather than DNA damage
THROMBOCYTE Blood Platelet
THROMBOCYTOPOIESIS Blood Platelet Production Stimulation
THROMBOSIS which is formation of blood clots in vessels associated with heart attack or angina
THYMIDYLATE SYNTHASE enzyme that catalyzes a reaction in which thymidylic acid is formed from deoxyuridylic acid, plays a role to supply thymine which is a base specific to DNAs, and is one of principal rate-limiting enzymes for a DNA precursor supply pathway.
THYROID HORMONES The hormones thyroxine & triiodothyronine
TIGLIC ACID 2-Me-2-Butenoic Acid
TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS proteins considered gateways to immune modulation
TORAH é o nome dado aos cinco primeiros livros do Tanakh (também chamados de Hamisha Humshei Torah, חמשה חומשי תורה - as cinco partes da Torá) e que constituem o texto central do judaísmo
TOUCH SCREEN A touch screen is a computer display screen that is also an input device. The screens are sensitive to pressure; a user interacts with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen.
There are three types of touch screen technology:

Resistive: A resistive touch screen panel is coated with a thin metallic electrically conductive and resistive layer that causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. Resistive touch screen panels are generally more affordable but offer only 75% clarity and the layer can be damaged by sharp objects. Resistive touch screen panels are not affected by outside elements such as dust or water.

Surface wave: Surface wave technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touch screen panel. When the panel is touched, a portion of the wave is absorbed. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing. Surface wave touch screen panels are the most advanced of the three types, but they can be damaged by outside elements.

Capacitive: A capacitive touch screen panel is coated with a material that stores electrical charges. When the panel is touched, a small amount of charge is drawn to the point of contact. Circuits located at each corner of the panel measure the charge and send the information to the controller for processing. Capacitive touch screen panels must be touched with a finger unlike resistive and surface wave panels that can use fingers and stylus. Capacitive touch screens are not affected by outside elements and have high clarity
TOURETTE'S SYNDROME An inherited neurological disorder that strikes before age 18. It's a movement disorder characterized by repetitive twitching, shrugging, & gesturing (motor tics) as well as "barking" & throat-clearing noises (vocal tics), word repetition, & involuntary cursing & swearing. The syndrome prevents people "from inhibiting behavior they need to inhibit".
Its neurochemistry is not known. The most common theory is that dopamine receptors become hypersensitive. Thus drugs that block dopamine receptors are used to treat Tourette's syndrome.
Tourette's syndrome is not a life-threatening disease, & it's inherited with varying degrees of severity. Some people are able to lead productive lives without taking any medication, whereas others seek help to control their symptoms.
In addition to tics, Tourette's patients often suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, agression, impulsiveness, & rage reactions
TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME Term used to describe syndromes caused by TSST (See Abbrev.)-1 (Staphylococcus aureus) & other pyrogenic exotoxins
TOXICOGENOMICS The study of how chemicals affect the expression of genes, the function of proteins & metabolism. This new field combines toxicology - the study of how poisons work - with genomics, the study of genes & their functions.
Toxicogenomics involves exposing microarrays - small glass or plastic plates contg hundreds or thousands of DNA strips - to chemicals & determn which genes are turned on or switched off
TRANSAMINASE See AminoTransferase.
TRANSCRIBED SPACER A segment of RNA that occurs in the primary RNA transcript (as that of rRNA) but is subsequently removed during post-transcriptional processing when a secondary, smaller, but functional RNA transcript is formed from the original transcript
TRANSCRIPT A transcribed sequence; a nucleic acid molecule formed during transcription
TRANSCRIPTASE DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
TRANSCRIPTION The process whereby the genetic information of DNA is copied in the form of RNA; a sequence of deoxyribonucleotides in a strand of DNA gives rise to a complementary sequence of ribonucleotides in a strand of RNA
TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DNA-binding proteins that activate the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA.
TRANSCRIPTION INHIBITOR Compd that inhibits the signal emitted by cell when dividing & transform in cancer
TRANSCRIPTION UNIT A stretch of DNA that is transcribed as a single, continuous mRNA strand by RNA polymerase; includes the signals for initiation & termination of this transcription. A simple transcription unit is one that carries information for the synthesis of only one protein; a complex transcription unit carries information for the synthesis of more than one protein
TRANSCRIPTIONAL CONTROL The regulation of protein synthesis at the level of transcription
TRANSCRIPTOME the set of all cellular messenger RNA transcripts
TRANSCRIPTOMICS looks to unravel all of the cellular messenger RNA transcripts of an organism, often produced under a variety of conditions
TRANSISTOR Electronic Valve that Allows or Blocks Current Passage

Flow of electrical current can be turned on or off by controlling the voltage on an electrode known as a gate.

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an intense and tightly focused electron beam with a few hundred thousand electron-volts of energy is transmitted through extremely thin specimens. Beams that have interacted with a specimen are detected and used for electron imaging, diffraction, and other types of studies
TRANSMYOCARDIAL REVASCULARISATION In this method, a series of channels are formed in the left ventricular wall of the heart. The channels may be transmural (i.e., from the epicardium to the endocardium), or intramural (for example, from the endocardium and terminating in the myocardium).

TRIBOCHEMISTRY Tribologically induced chemical reactions
TRIBOLOGY Rubbing - & the effects of friction, wear & lubrication is the essence of the field of tribology
TRIPLOIDY creating fish with three sets of chromosomes instead of two
TRONA Na2CO3.NaHCO3.2H2O. A natural Na sesquicarbonate & the most important of the natural sodas
TUBULE CELLS Part of kidney tissue. The next step after FILTRATION, is carried out in the proximal tubule region, populated with cells that return to blood "good" ions & molecules, that escape in the ultrafiltrate.
The tubule region also has metabolic & immunologic roles
TUBULIN (Protein) Microtubules are intracellular filamentous structures present in all eukaryotic cells. As components of different organelles such as mitotic spindles, centrioles, basal bodies, cilia, flagella, axopodia and the cytoskeleton, microtubules are involved in many cellular functions including chromosome movement during mitosis, cell motility, organelle transport, cytokinesis, cell plate formation, maintenance of cell shape and orientation of cell microfibril deposition in developing plant cell walls. The major component of microtubules is tubulin, a protein composed of two subunits called alpha and beta. An important property of tubulin in cells is the ability to undergo polymerization to form microtubules or to depolymerize under appropriate conditions. This process can also occur in vitro using isolated tubulin.

Microtubules play a critical role in cell division as components of the mitotic spindle, an organelle which is involved in distributing chromosomes within the dividing cell precisely between the two daughter nuclei
TULAREMIA Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia in humans. Though clinical infection causes a spectrum of illness from a mild flu-like syndrome to a life-threatening infection, tularemia is a CDC Category A biologic threat agent due to high infectivity (infectious dose as low as 1-10 organisms), ease of spread by aerosol, and the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality in infected persons
TUMOR LYSIS SYNDROME Tumor Lysis Syndrome, also known as TLS, is a potentially fatal metabolic complication resulting from the rapid destruction of malignant cells by cancer treatment and the release of intracellular contents into extracellular space
TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR A cytokine, produced naturally by macrophages in response to bacterial infection & other challenges. It appears to work synergistically with interferon & results in the killing of tumor cells (TNF)
TUMOR TARGETED SUPERANTIGEN (Oncology) antibody linked to a toxin stimulates the body's own immune system so that it specifically targets and kills cancer cells locally, inside the tumour.
Superantigens is the collective name used to refer to several substances that include some of the most powerful stimulators of the human immune system. They are particularly effective in activating T-cells, which are one of the strongest weapons in the arsenal used by the body to rid itself of unwanted cells
TURBOCHARGER The purpose of a turbocharger is to compress the air flowing into the diesel engine, this lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder and more air means that more fuel can be added. The engine burns air and fuel to create mechanical power, the more air and fuel it can burn the more powerful it is.

In simple terms, a turbocharger comprises of a turbine and a compressor connected by a common shaft supported on a bearing system. The turbocharger converts waste energy from an engine's exhaust gases into compressed air, which it pushes into the engine. This allows the engine to burn more fuel producing more power and improve the overall efficiency of the combustion process.

TURISM>South Africa>Designer Tours INCLUÍDO:
• Passagem aérea em classe econômica SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS
• Acomodação po 1 noite em JOHANNESBURG, com café da manhã.
• Acomodação por 2 noites em área vizinha ao KRUGER NATIONAL PARK (*) com pensão completa à sua escolha: KAPAMA BUFFALO CAMP , KAPAMA MAIN LODGE , THORNYBUSH MAIN LODGE, MALA MALA, SABI SABI, SINGITA
• Acomodação por 3 noites em CAPETOWN ,com café da manhã.
• Em Johannesburg, assistência em espanhol e traslado privativo na chegada em Johannesburg e traslado regular sem assistência em shuttle do próprio hotel na saída para opções de Hotéis Primeira/Luxo e traslados privativos com assistência em espanhol na chegada e na saida para opção Hotéis Luxury.
• Traslados na área do Kruger National Park realizados em Vans ou Land Rover ou Avionetas compartidos com assistência em inglês.
• 4 Safaris fotográficos em área do Kruger National Park, em Land Rover (Jeeps abertos 4x4), com assistência de rangers em inglês.
• Traslados privativos com assistência em espanhol em Capetown.
• Cartão de Assistência TRAVEL ACE - TURISTA até 69 anos
• Em Capetown, possibilidade de passeios: Visita à cidade e subida na Montanha da Mesa (se o tempo permitir), visita á região dos vinhedos , as focas, os pingüins e ao Cabo da Boa Esperança ou à Rota Jardim.

01o dia SÃO PAULO/JOHANNESBURG- África do Sul
Apresentação no aeroporto para embarque pela SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS, com destino a Johannesburg.

Chegada, RECEPÇÃO E TRASLADO PRIVATIVO COM GUIA LOCAL FALANDO ESPANHOL ao Hotel. Acomodação por 1 noite com café da manhã. Restante da tarde livre para descansar. SUGERIMOS: Visita a Gold Reef City, um museu ao ar livre relembrando a época da mineração de Johannesburg. Conheça uma antiga mina subterrânea de ouro e como era subtraído. Veja também uma tradicional dança de tribos africanas não perca o passeio em um trem a vapor (fechado às segundas feiras).

Programe com o hotel o horário de saída do transporte EM SERVIÇO REGULAR ao Aeroporto de Johannesburg (sem assistência de guia local) (privativo na opção de Hotéis Luxury). Apresentação no Terminal doméstico para embarque em vôo da SOUTH AFRICAN EXPRESS com destino ao Aeroporto de Hoedspruit ou KMIA (Kruger Mpumalanga International Airport). Chegada e traslado em Vans ou Land-Rovers ou avionetas até a Reserva Privativa. Acomodação por 2 noites com pensão completa.
Esta tarde (aproximadamente às 16h) saída para o Safári, realizados em Land-Rovers (jeeps abertos 4WD). Ao entardecer sempre há uma parada em ponto estratégico para admirar o pôr do sol e é servido chá, café, refrigerantes ou vinho e um lanchinho. Cada land rover segue com o seu ranger e um rastreador shangaan. Para caçada aos bichos à noite utilizam um holofote e comunicam-se entre si o tempo todo para localizarem as manadas ou um animal específico. À noite, retorno ao hotel para o jantar no típico BOMA. Os Bomas normalmente ficam numa área com piso de terra batida ou areia, cercada por troncos de árvores ou Sapés, com uma fogueira ao centro e uma espécie de churrasqueira para grelhar carnes e era um costume das etnias africanas.

(*) Algumas Reservas Privativas oferecidas neste programa não estão localizadas dentro da área do Kruger National Park, mas em terrenos vizinhos, em Northern Province ou Sabi Sands. Os Game Drives (Safáris fotográficos) são realizados em território delimitados da Reserva Privativa, sem acesso ao Kruger National Park. Caso deseje realizar o Safári Fotográfico dentro do Kruger National Park, consulte-nos.

O primeiro safári será às 6h da manhã. Os Rangers sempre fornecem informações sobre os animais e a aves e seus costumes. Parada para apreciar o amanhecer. Retorno ao Lodge por volta das 9h para o farto café da manhã. Restante da manhã e início da tarde livres para desfrutar piscina e caminhadas ou simplesmente descansar e relaxar. Às 16h, saída para o safári até o anoitecer. Hoje serão rastreados animais ainda não vistos nos safáris anteriores. Espera-se que tenha oportunidade de clicar os Big Five (Elefante, Leão, Rinoceronte, Búfalo e Leopardo).

O último safári pela manhã, quem sabe para conhecer os vários tipos de aves e outros animais selvagens menores, a vegetação e plantas típicas do lugar. No retorno do safári, café da manhã e traslado em Land Rover ou Van ou Avioneta ao Aeroporto de Hoedspruit ou KMIA para embarque em vôo da SOUTH AFRICAN EXPRESS com destino a Capetown, via Johannesburg (possibilidade de vôo direto do Kruger Park a Capetown com custo adicional. Consulte). Chegada e traslado privativo ao Hotel. Acomodação por 3 noites, com café da manhã.

06o dia CAPETOWN
Dia livre. SUGERIMOS: visita à cidade, conhecendo os principais pontos históricos da cidade mãe da África do sul, fundada em 1652 pelo holandês Ian Van Riebeck (o Forte da Cidade e o Bairro Malaio). Passeio pelos Jardins da Companhia Holandesa das Índias Orientais e ao Museu Nacional da África do Sul. Para os que desejarem, podem apreciar a bela vista do alto da Montanha da Mesa. Noite livre para desfrutar das atrações do Victoria & Albert Waterfront.

07o dia CAPETOWN
Dia livre. SUGERIMOS: saída para visita de dia inteira ao Cabo da Boa Esperança, margeando a costa do Oceano Atlântico, passando por zonas residenciais e pequenos povoados costeiros, uma espetacular paisagem de mar e montanhas. Parada no Porto de Hout Bay. Chegada à Reserva Natural do Cabo da Boa Esperança para finalmente chegar à Ponta do Cabo, onde se encontram as correntes do Oceano Atlântico e Indico. Regresso via False Bay com parada para o almoço. À tarde, visita ao famoso Jardim Botânico de Kirstenbosch. Sugerimos uma extensão à Rota Jardim. (NECESSÁRIO 3 DIAS PARA REALIZAR ESTE OPCIONAL)

Às primeiras horas da manhã, traslado privativo ao aeroporto para embarque em vôo SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS
com destino a Johannesburg. Chegada e conexão em vôo da SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS com destino a São Paulo. Chegada ao Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo no mesmo dia.
TURNER SYNDROME Genetic chromosomal defect in girls. It results in growth retardation and infertility, as well as other potential medical, psychological, and cosmetic issues.
TYPE II 5a-REDUCTASE an intracellular enzyme that converts the androgen testosterone into 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT).