S

S PHASE Phase of the cell cycle in which the DNA doubles.
SACCHARASE Beta-h-Fructosidase;an enzyme hydrolyzing beta-d-fructofuranosides and releasing free d-fructose; if the substrate is sucrose, the product is d-glucose plus d-fructose (invert sugar); invert sugar is more easily digestible than sucrose.

Synonym: invertase, invertin, saccharase
SAKURAI REACTION Me-C6H4-CHO+(Me)3Si-CH2-CH=CH2 = Me-C6H4-
-CHOH-CH2-CH=CH2

mediated by

1. TiCl4, DCM
2. PS-DEAM, PS-DIEA

Sakurai H., Pure Appl. Chem. 1982, 54, 1.
SALTZ REGIMEN (Oncology) 5-FU/Leucovorin/CPT-11
SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION A mode of nutrition of "plant-like" organisms (such as bacteria & fungi) in which the organism derives its nutrients from dead or decaying plant or animal matter in the form of organic compds in soln
SAR BY NMR (Pharma.>Drug Discovery) In this technique, NMR is used to obtain structure & affinity data on fragments that bind to proteins. Frag
ments are then combined & modified to yield higher affinity ligands & drug
leads
SARCOMA A malignant tumor that arises from connec
tive tissue
SARCOPENIA age-related muscle loss
SATIETY How soon one feels, one has eaten enough (Obesity regulation)
SCAFFOLD (Pharma.) Functional group-rich molecules used as building blocks for medicinal compd. libraries.
SCHIZOPHRENIA The brain is a complex network of nerve cells. These nerve cells communicate with one other through electrical impulses and chemical signals. Chemicals in the brain, called neurotransmitters, help you receive accurate information, process the information (make sense of it), and make decisions based on the information you receive and process.

Schizophrenia can affect the way your brain receives information in several ways:

Your brain receives an overload of information.
You become more sensitive to stimuli around you, such as lights, noises, and background information, and your brain has trouble sorting out what you hear and see. Often, messages get jumbled
Your brain receives information that may not be accurate. Because your brain is not receiving accurate information, your senses may play tricks on you, and you might hear, see, taste, touch, or smell things that others do not. This is known as a hallucination.
Your brain may store information incorrectly. As new information is received, your brain may store it with memories that are not related to it. This may cause you to respond with an inappropriate emotion, such as laughing at sad news. Schizophrenia may affect the way your brain understands information in the following ways:

Your brain processes information more slowly.
Your mind may be flooded with information, making it overworked and overloaded. Your response time may slow down because there is just too much information to think about. It may take you longer to learn a new skill.
Your brain doesn't have all of the information it needs to understand the message.
Your brain may receive only bits and pieces of information, like pieces of a puzzle. You may have to struggle to fit those pieces together so that the message makes sense.
Your brain may reach incorrect conclusions. Using incomplete messages can lead to illogical or incorrect conclusions???resulting in false beliefs, such as delusions.
SCHWANN CELL The cell surrounding a myelinated nerve axon
SCIENCE LINKAGE Patent indicator, which indicates the number of references in the firm own patent application to scientific papers
SCINTILLATION The emission of flashes of light by fluorescent substances subsequent to their
excitation by means of radioactive or other radiation
SCLERODERMA A rare connective tissue disease in which the the most familiar abnormality is thickening and tightening of the skin. It may occur in various forms (diffuse, limited cutaneous).
SCORCHINESS Used to indicate that premature vulcaniza
tion occurs when a particular elastomer is mixed with crosslinking agent
SEARCH ENGINE RANKING refers to the position at which a particular site appears in the results of a search engine query. A site is said to have a high ranking when it appears at or near the top of the list of results. Just to confuse things, results are typically numbered starting at 1 and increasing down the list of results, thus a higher ranking corresponds to a lower number, 1 being ideal.
SECONDARY BATTERY ReChargeable. Internal electrochemical reac
tions are Reversible. That makes the batteries ReChargeable usually by plugging
them into a wall socket
SECONDARY PREVN. OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in the period following the initial survival of a heart attack, the post myocardial infarction period
SELDINGER TECHNIQUE The Seldinger technique is a medical procedure to obtain safe access to blood vessels and other hollow organs.
SELECTIVE INTERNAL RADIATION THERAPY When radioactive particles or microspheres are administered into the blood supply of the target organ, the technique has become known as Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT). Generally, the main form of application of SIRT has been its use to treat cancers in the liver.

SELF SYNTHESIS embraces not only self-assembly and self-organization, but also self-replication and template-type polymerization or autocatalysis
SEMEN Thick, whitish fluid containing sperm that is discharged through the penis during ejaculation
SEP - VIDA A SO Ideas e observacoes Renata G. (28.12.04)

1. Empregada.
2. InCap. Fisica - em cama em casa ou hospita
l.

- Podendo ASSINAR E ESCREVER - OK
3. InCap. Mental - Problema.
4. LIMITED Power of Attorney. Valido en vida
e da poder de movimentacion de cuenta
INTERNA i.e. compra e venda de titulos
5. FULL Power of Attorney. Valido en vida e
da poderes TOTALES.
6. Obtener carton e senha (Bradesco). Poder
de SACAR dinero en $R do Bradesco ao
cambio comercial. Igual que carton Itau
7. Abrir conta conjunta T. e L. no valor de
100.000, arriscando a dar p ela 50,000
SEPSIS Blood Generalized Infection
SEPTICEMIA The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the blood
SERRAPEPTASE is protein digesting enzyme which breaks down "non living" matter in the human body. This may promote a reduction in levels of dead tissue in the circulatory system, promoting smoother healthier flowing blood. Fibrin often builds up throughout the body and manifest in many undesirable and unhealthy ailments. Serrapeptase fights fibrin build up in the cardiovascular system, organs and muscle tissue
SEVERE MALIGNANT OSTEOPETROSIS life-threatening, congenital disorder that primarily affects children. This disease results in increased susceptibility to infection and an overgrowth of bony structures that may lead to blindness and/or deafness.
SEWAGE SLUDGE A mixt. of organic materials resulting from purification of municipal waste. There are 2 types:
(1) Imhoff sludge: A low grade sludge contg ammonia (2 - 3 %) & PO4H3
(1 %).
Derivation: By running sewage through settling tanks without access of
air. The sludge, or solid matter, is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria.
(2) Activated sludge: A high-grade sludge contg ammonia (5 - 7.5 %) &
PO4H3 (2.5 - 4 %)
Derivation: By running sewage through settling tanks & pumping air (O)
through porous plates at the bottom of the tanks. 20% of the current "ma
ke" is also added. The waste acts as nutrient for aerobic bacteria, which
consume the polluting organic matter. The resulting solids are filtered &
dried.
SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMERS When heated, SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMERS transform from a temporary initial shape into a often drastically different permanent shape
SHELL COMPANY Co. without a business
SHIGA LIKE TOXIN Shiga-like toxin is Shiga toxin produced by the bacteria E. coli and also known as Verotoxin. In 1977, researchers in Ottawa rediscovered the Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae in E. coli. The E. Coli version was named Verotoxin because of the ability of the toxic protein to kill Vero (African green monkey kidney) cells in culture. Shortly after, the Verotoxin was referred to as Shiga-like toxin because of its similarities to Shiga toxin.
SHIGA TOXIN Toxin produced by "Shigella dysenteriae" bacteria
SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME SBS is a condition resulting from the surgical removal of significant portions of the bowel following injury or illness. There are 16,000 to 20,000 adult patients with SBS in the United States. Regulatory authorities in the U.S. and European Union have granted orphan drug status to teduglutide for its potential use, if approved, in treating SBS. Symptoms of SBS include diarrhea, dehydration, malnourishment, and weight loss caused by an inadequate absorption of nutrients and fluids from the diet. Long-term complications of the condition may include an increased risk of systemic infections due to the presence of an intravenous feeding line, degenerative changes in the bones and nerves due to vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and liver failure. Potential benefits derived from reduced dependence on intravenous feeding may include improved nutrition, lower rates of infections, and improved quality of life due to more time away from intravenous feeding, which may provide greater mobility and improved sleep
SHOTCRETE Sprayable Concrete
SICK BUILDING SYNDROME an environment where indoor air quality is further compromised by cleaning chemicals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by furnishings, and ozone emitted from fax and copy machines.
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease in which the red blood cells, normally disc-shaped, become crescent shaped. As a result, they function abnormally and cause small blood clots. These clots give rise to recurrent painful episodes called "sickle cell pain crises".

SIDEROPHORE iron-loving organic molecules
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION Intracellular protein communication
SILICA. FUMED Colloidal form of silica made by combustion of Si tetrachloride in H-O furnaces
SILICA. PRECIPITATED Silica made by acid-precipitation of aq. soln. of alkaline silicates
SILICON CHIP (Electronics) A thin, round slice of semiconductor material, typically silicon, from which microchips are made. Silicon is processed into large cylindrical ingots, sliced into ultra-thin wafers and then implanted with transistors before being cut into smaller semiconductor chips
SILICON WAFER (Electronics) A thin, round slice of semiconductor material, typically silicon, from which microchips are made. Silicon is processed into large cylindrical ingots, sliced into ultra-thin wafers and then implanted with transistors before being cut into smaller semiconductor chips
SILKWORM the caterpillar of the silk moth, Bombyx mori
SIMULATED MOVING BED TECHNOLOGY (SMB) If success in pharmaceutical chemical manufacturing is all about having the right tools in the production toolbox, then the tool several companies are adding today is simulated moving bed technology.

SMB, as the process is known, is a large-scale version of the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography used by countless laboratories to purify or separate mixtures of compounds.

Unlike HPLC, however, SMB is a continuous process in which a solvent and the compounds to be separated are injected into and withdrawn from a ring of chromatographic columns at rotating points between the columns. This technique simulates movement of the chromatographic packing material, or bed, against the solvent stream and allows for continuous recovery of the desired compound.
SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM Genomes of different individuals are well over 99& identical. The most typical variations are changes called SINGLE-NUCLEOTI
DE POLYMORPHISMS (SNPs), in which one or another of 2 DNA bases is found at an identical genomic location in different people
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Worked at Hoechst AG (Now Clariant AG) in Frankfurt/M; Germany in the Dept. of Organic Intermediates. Worked at the Brazilian Decorative Paint’s Subsidiary of Dutch Group AkzoNobel Coatings till 1993; being Responsible for Synthetic Resins’s R&D Activities.
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SKELETAL DYSPLASIA Skeletal dysplasia

(Achondroplasia & hypochondroplasia)
Achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are bone diseases caused by a genetic disorder (a defect in the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene (FGFR1), which affects the long bones of the arms and legs.

In addition to growth failure, achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are characterised by abnormal body proportions. These abnormal body proportions are more severe in children with achondroplasia. In most cases, they are apparent at birth and persist into adulthood. In addition, children with achondroplasia are often obese with a large head and flattened nose.


SKIN ATROPHY the thinning and/or general degradation of the dermis often characterized by a decrease in collagen and/or elastin as well as decreased number, size and doubling potential of fibroblast cells
SLEEP APNEA cessation of breathing during sleep
SMALL for GESTATIONAL AGE (SGA) Approximately 5% of all infants are born shorter and/or lighter than normal, regardless of whether or not they are born premature. These infants are considered small for their gestational age (SGA). Although the majority of these children catch up in height to within the normal range during the first 2 years of life, 8 - 10% of short children born SGA fail to exhibit catch-up growth by age 2. If left untreated, these children are likely to remain short throughout adolescence and adulthood.

In the majority of cases, the cause of SGA remains unknown. However, there are also several known causes, including:

Foetal abnormalities
Placental insufficiency (i.e. as a result of smoking, drugs, or alcohol)
Maternal factors (i.e., cardiovascular disease, multiple birth pregnancy)
The growth hormone status of children born SGA varies from normal to deficient and it is thought that decreased growth is due to insensitivity to the body’s own growth hormone and/or other growth factors. Growth hormone therapy is thought to overcome this insensitivity, enabling children to reach their full potential height.

SOAP BUBBLE (Toy) A soap bubble is a spherical layer of soap film encapsulating air or gas. The film consists of a thin sheet of water sandwiched between two layers of soap molecules. One end of each soap molecule is hydrophilic, or attracted to water. The other end consists of a hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain that tends to avoid water. The hydrophobic ends of the soap molecules crowd to the surface, trying to avoid the water, and stick out away from the layer of water molecules. As a result, water molecules separate from each other. The increased distance between the water molecules causes a decrease in surface tension, enabling bubbles to form.

Bubbles take their familiar spherical shape in order to minimize the energy of the soap film. A sphere provides the minimal surface area needed to enclose a given volume, making it the most efficient shape for a bubble. Even bubbles blown from odd-shaped wands end up in spheres.

The perfect soap film for bubbles comes from the perfect solution. Numerous variations of soap bubble solutions appear on the Internet. Almost all recipes involve liquid detergents, such as Joy or Dawn, and water. Unlike soaps, detergents don't contain a carboxylate group that reacts with calcium and magnesium ions found in hard water to produce a scum. Therefore, detergents aren't dependent on distilled water for bubble formation.

Glycerin--C3H5(OH)3, which can be bought in drugstores--is often included as well. Bubbles eventually burst once the layer of water evaporates, but adding glycerin lengthens the life span of bubbles. Glycerin forms weak hydrogen bonds with water, delaying evaporation. Dry air or dry hands can still burst a bubble, however.

SOIL RELEASE AGENT An additive that deposits on fabrics, mainly
polyester or polyester blends, during one washing & aids the removal of soil in sub
sequent washings.
SOLVAY PROCESS Most of world's soda ash is made by title process, a synthetic route invented in the 1870s by Belgian Ernest Solvay in which limestone & salt are converted into soda ash & Ca chloride
SOMATIC Pertaining to cells &/or tissues of an organism; other than the mature gametes & germ cells from which they develop
SOTALOL N-[4-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methylethyl)amino]ethylphenyl]methane-sulfonamide
SP/PR Dr. Chernobayev's private consulting center for men






For patient's consideration

Professional comments

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Ðóññêàÿ âåðñèÿ


For patient's consideration


The preparation for consideration is the highly dispersed camphor emulsion ECADO manufactured using a special know-how and based on the carrier developed by Dr. Chernobayev to ensure its rapid absorption. The pharmacological mechanism of action of the drug is described in the "Theory" section. However it is still misunderstood by many physicians, not mentioning patients.

Prostate adenoma is now believed to develop, sooner or later, in every man old enough. Notable changes in the prostate appear even at younger ages, from about 30 to 40 years. Therefore, many men who are older than 35 suffer from chronic prostatitis, and after a few years adenomatous nodes develop. In 40-80% of patients this is associated with impaired sexual function. Age-associated changes in the prostate are likely to be naturally programmed. If so, how can they be prevented? This is what the easy-to-use drug ECADO is designed for. It has been patented and has no analogues in the world. When used in therapy for prostate adenoma it allows not only to eliminate the clinical manifestations of the condition but, also, to decrease the size of the enlarged prostate by 40%, on average, in a very short time. How it comes? The daily secretion by the prostate must be minimum 2 ml. This amount is either discharged with the sperma or, where no regular sexual intercourses occur, is excreted with urine imperceptibly. In older ages and in the cases of inflammation the latter does not occur. The secretory units of the prostate, its acini, which produce their secretion perpetually, become overfilled with their thick and viscous secretion and become vulnerable to infection. Just imagine a jar of milk on a window-still. In 24 h, there will be milk whey above and clabber below. Every tissue of human body, including blood, urine and even bone, is a biocolloid vulnerable to natural aging (colloidoclasia).

ECADO preparation is quickly absorbed. Camphor, being one of its components, is released in an unchanged way in prostate and ensures dilution and removal of its secretion.
Camphor provides normal level of the hormones which are constantly present in prostate and normalization of their ratio. Scientific research already exists in this sphere. This is important to understand the pathogenesis of progression of adenoma and prostate cancer.

The use of ECADO provides for rapid restoration of the resistance of prostate secretion to its aging, for recovery of its fluidity and bactericidal activity and, by virtue of improved fluidity, for enhanced ability to pass through narrow ducts in the prostate gland.

A short-term treatment of the prostate with the drug easily eliminates the pathogenic microflora in the gland. The microflora affected by the treatment includes Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, trichomonas species, fungi, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasma, etc.

The acini of the prostate become enabled to easily empty themselves, and the manifestations of their malfunctioning disappear together with the accompanying inflammation.

The aforesaid relates to prostatitis and its result, prostate adenoma. The following discussion relates to the ability of ECADO to restore sexual potency. Camphora is generally known to stimulate breathing and heartbeat and to dilate blood vessels in the heart and brain. The control centers of these functions are located in the parasympathetic compartment of the spinal cord (the medulla). The other part of this parasympathetic nervous system is localized in the sacral compartment of the nervous system where the center that controls erection resides. ECADO stimulates this center, which leads to dilation of the cavernous bodies of the penis.

The use of ECADO to treat erectile dysfunctions and impaired ejaculation in patients aged above 75 affords excellent results. In recent years this approach has been used to treat patient aged above 90, and good results were obtained.

ECADO is the first drug worldwide to be useful not only for treatment of prostatitis, male infertility, benign prostate hyperplasia, and impotence, but also for prevention of these conditions. However, if the age-associated changes in the prostate are programmed and, thus, are inevitable, how could they be avoided or delayed? How surgery on the prostate could be avoided? When the relevant prophylactic treatment should be started?

Dr. Chernobayev suggests a program for prevention of these conditions using monotherapy with ECADO.

This is as simple as the following. You brush your teeth in the morning to prevent caries and use ECADO by night, which is easy to get used to. Much depends upon when, at which stage of the continuing and distressing process of aging, you start seeking medical attention. It is never late to start treatment. However, longer treatment is needed when prostate adenoma has already developed. Then supportive courses of treatment with ECADO are sufficient.

THE TREATMENT REGIMEN FOR PREVENTION OF PROSTATITIS, BENIGN HYPERPLASIA OF THE PROSTATE, IMPOTENCE, AND PROSTATE CANCER

The onset of prophylactic treatment.
No symptoms of the conditions are evident.
The age is 35-45 years.
Treatment regimen: 20-40 days of every other day treatment annually.
Recommendations:
- urine tests
- blood tests
- ultrasonic examination
- prostate palpation
- spermogram (to be compares with earlier results).
Symptoms include the sensations of heaviness and pain in the perineum, local sweating in the scrotum? reduced urine pressure, nocturnal urges for urination about 1 time per night, premature ejaculation, and incomplete or unstable erection.
The age is usually 35-48 years.
Treatment regimen: two courses lasting for 30-50 days annually.
Recommendations:
- urine tests
- blood tests
- ultrasonic examination
- prostate palpation
- PSA
Expressed symptoms including frequent urination reaching two times overnight and causing "WC-bounding" in the daytime; flaccid urine jet and the need to squeeze urine out in the end of urination; the sensations of heaviness and pain in the perineum and in the sacral area in the morning and of pain above the pubic area; unstable and incomplete erection and premature ejaculation.
The age is 46-48 years or older.
Treatment regimen: daily procedures for 40-60 days 2-3 times annually.
Recommendations:
- urine tests
- blood tests
- blood sugar
- blood bilirubin
- blood creatinine
- ultrasonic examination
- PSA
- prostate palpation.
It is advised that a patient achieves some stable level of symptoms in the course of using ECADO and determines his attitude towards this level and related quality of life. The treatment with ECADO should be repeated when patient's condition worsens. In this case, the drug should be used more frequently.
ECADO is sent to foreign customers by mail after prepayment is made by remittance to the banking account specified below. The price of a kit for 20 days of use is US$ 195. The customer shall notify about the remittance of this amount and also inform of his/her personal data and postal address.

Beneficiary Institution
SABRRU2P - Saving Bank of the Russian Federation (Severo-Zapadny Office)
St. Petersburg Tosno Branch.
Beneficiary Customer
42301840355385000265 Chernobayev Nikolay
Remittance information (This field consisting of 4 lines, 35 symbols each, may be filled with information related to the remittance).

Indications: Stage 1 and 2 prostate adenoma, chronic prostatitis, male infertility, sexual weakness, prophylaxis of prostate cancer.

Contraindications: epilepsy, glaucoma, individual intolerance.

Side effects: in some cases, local reactions manifested as mild itch are possible.

Dosage and usage: The typical dose is 4-5 ml of emulsion. The preparation is administered rectally once a day by night. To this, pull the plunger out of the syringe and fill it with emulsion up to the mark 5. Then put the plunger back, lubricate the tip and insert it into the anus till fixed stop. Push out the contents. Wash the syringe with warm water and soap. Treatment regimen: daily intrarectal administrations of 5 ml of the emulsion for 2 months in cases of chronic prostatitis, for 3-4 months in cases of prostate adenoma, 1.5-2 months in cases of sexual failure, and 2-6 months in cases of infertility. No physiotherapy and massage of the prostate and no other drugs are needed.

Note: Do not use the preparation after the expiry date. Store it in a dry cool place protected from light.

Shelf life: two years.

Kit contents: Three 45-ml tubes, microclyster and instruction (check the appearance).

The preparation ECADO is used by prescription of doctor Chernobayev, urologist.

The right to formulate the preparation ECADO belongs to Chernobayev N.Ye. and is protected by the Laws of the Russian Federation as related to author's rights and intellectual property.

Manufactured by MPP "Farmatsiya", Saint-Petersburg, by the author's license.

The preparation ECADO is not subjected to obligatory certification basing on the Regulations of Medicinal Drug Registration in the Russian Federation.

REQUEST FOR TREATMENT

Please indicate the following where possible:
Family name, first name, patronymic.
Age.
Marital status.
Profession.
Home address.
Telephone number.
Data of clinical, laboratory and other examinations.
Prior treatment(s) (surgical or therapeutic).
Prior drugs.
Concomitant diseases.

Addressing the Consulting Center ECADO for Men is available for anyone irrespective of age or place of residence. Here is our contact information.





Copyright 2003 "Dr.Chernobayev"

address: 187000, Leningrad district, Tosno, P.O. Box ¹146 tel.: (81361) 29-4-29 mob. tel.: 8-921 657-60-44 e-mail: info@ecado.ru

Адрес: 187000, Ленинградская обл., г.Тосно, а/я №146
Тел.: (81361) 29-4-29
Факс: (81361) 269-46
e-mail: info@ecado.ru


SPANDEX Generic Name (Australia, USA) for Elastomeric PolyUrethane Fiber
SPASTICITY Spasticity refers to the involuntary tension, stiffening or contractions of muscles. This condition occurs when the nerve cells in the spinal cord become disconnected from controlling centers in the brain, and therefore transmit unregulated impulses to the muscles.

Spasticity may be painful and may range from slight muscle stiffness to permanent shortening of the muscle. Spasticity may interfere with mobility, making moving from a seated to a standing position or transferring from a bed to a wheelchair more difficult. Daily activities (such as eating, dressing and grooming) may also become more difficult for a person living with spasticity.

Spasticity is common in neurological disorders where portions of the nervous system that control voluntary movement have been damaged, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke and traumatic brain injury. Up to 75% of people with chronic SCI, and the majority of people with MS experience some form of spasticity. While the incidence of spasticity is not known with certainty, it is estimated to affect over half a million people in the United States alone, and over 12 million worldwide1.

SPECIAL PROTOCOL ASSESSMENT (FDA) A Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) from the FDA is an agreement that the Phase III trial protocol design, clinical endpoints, and statistical analyses are acceptable to support regulatory approval. An SPA is binding upon the FDA unless a substantial scientific issue essential to determining safety or efficacy is identified after the testing is begun. For more information please visit the FDA website: www.fda.gov/CbER/gdlns/protocol.pdf.
SPHINGOLIPIDOSIS One of a number of genetically inherited metabolic defects in humans that are characterized by the accumulation of various sphingolipids & that are due to deficiencies of lysosomal enzymes. Examples:
- Krabbe's disease
- Niemann-Pick disease
- Tay-Sachs disease
SPINAL CORD INJURY Description of SCI Patient
pinal cord injury (SCI) affects between 180,000 and 230,000 Americans. In SCI, conduction of nerve signals between the brain and those nerve cells below the injury site is blocked. SCI patients experience impaired or loss of normal bodily functions, including the sense of touch and the ability to move. Since the level of injury differs between patients, the degree and type of impairment also differs. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of SCI in the U.S., followed by acts of violence, falls and sports. Additionally, patients with a particular autoimmune disorder, called transverse myelitis, may also suffer from severe spinal cord injury. In these patients, the disorder is believed to be due to injury to the sheath surrounding the nerves in the spinal cord.
SPINTRONICS Spintronics (a neologism meaning "spin transport electronics" ), also known as magnetoelectronics, is an emerging technology which exploits the intrinsic spin of electrons and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, in solid-state devices.
SQUALENE SYNTHETASE is a microsomal enzyme which catalyzes the reductive dimerization of two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form) (NADPH) to form squalene (Poulter, C.D.; Rilling, H.C., in "Biosynthesis of Isoprenoid Compounds", Vol. I, Chapter 8, pp. 413-441, J. Wiley and Sons, 1981, and references therein).
STAGE (Oncology) the measurement of the extent of a cancer - whether the disease has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.
STAGE II COLON CANCER Cancer has spread outside the colon and/or rectum to nearby tissue, but it has not gone into the lymph nodes. Also called Dukes B colorectal cancer
STEATOSIS 1. Adiposis
2. Fatty degeneration
3. Fats in Liver
STEM CELL Undifferentiated Cell taken from very early Human Embryos
STENT Tiny Pieces of Wire Mesh that prop open Vascular Vessel to treat Restenosis
STERILIZATION complete elimination of all viable microorganisms including spores (Hospital Infections, 2nd Ed. (Bennett, J. V. and Brachinan, P. S. eds.), Little, Brown and Co., Boston, Mass.), pp. 238-241, 1986).
STILLE COUPLING REACTION Suzuki Coupling Variation based on OrganoTin
Reagent
STRUCTURAL GENOMICS focuses on the physical aspects of the genome through the construction and comparison of gene maps and sequences, as well as gene discovery, localization, and characterization.
SULFUR SWEETENING Sulfur Compd. Removal Process
SUN PROTECTION FACTOR The degree of protection afforded by a sunscreen is rated by its SPF, or sun protection factor: How long it will permit you to stay in the sun without your skin turning red (a condition known as erythema), compared with how long it would take your skin to turn red without the sunscreen.

SUN SKIN TAN Body's reaction to damage. Given by Macchio Ralph. Coty's Senior VP of R&D
SUPERCONDUCTOR Material that, below a given temperature, can transmit electrical current with ZERO resistance, that is, without losing part of energy produced in form of heat
SUPERCRITICAL WATER Characterized by
- T = 400C
- Pressure = 230 bar
- Density = 0.1
- Dielectric constant = 2
- Rel. ionization constant = < 0.01
SUPERGENERICS. (Pharma.) It's better than the original; it represents a higher level of innovation than specialty generics; and the company gets full patent protection and a minimum of three years of marketing exclusivity. However, the supergeneric maker must go through a different approval process--not the Abbreviated New Drug Application, which applies to generic versions--requiring limited animal toxicology studies and clinical trials to demonstrate that its version is effective.
SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE Surface Plasmon Resonance - a method to analyze interfacial optical properties and to develop biosensors
The phenomenon of anomalous diffraction on diffraction gratings due to the excitation of surface plasma waves was first described in the beginning of the twentieth century by Wood [1]. In the late sixties, optical excitation of surface plasmons by the method of attenuated total reflection was demonstrated by Kretschmann [2] and Otto [3]. Since then, surface plasmons have been intensively studied and their major properties have been assessed [4,5]. There are review papers specially recommended for beginners in the SPR method.

SPR Principle

Surface Plasmon Resonance is an quantum optical-electrical phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with a metal surface. Under certain conditions the energy carried by photons of light is transferred to packets of electrons, called plasmons, on a metal’s surface. Energy transfer occurs only at a specific resonance wavelength of light. That is, the wavelength where the quantum energy carried by the photons exactly equals the quantum energy level of the plasmons.

All the various kinds of excitation that occur in the gas phase may also take place in the condensed states of matter (liquid, glass, or solid), but their relative contributions may be affected. In addition, special activated states are produced for which there is no analogue in the gaseous state. They owe their existence to the collective behaviour of atoms and molecules in close proximity. The more important of them are the exciton state, the polaron state, the charge-transfer (or charge-separated) state, and the plasmon state. The plasmon state is a highly delocalized state formed collectively through Coulombian (electrostatic) interaction of weakly bound electrons. Energy losses, approximating 10-20 eV in most materials, resulting from formation of plasmon states are seen in the impact of electrons of a few tens of kilovolts energy on thin films. Both metals and nonmetals, including plastics, show plasma energy losses. The lost energy may reappear in the form of ultraviolet or visible radiation; no chemical effect is known to have occurred from such losses.

SURGICAL MESHES are grid-like plugs, which are used to repair defects within the muscle-skeletal system.
SURVIVIN (Protein) a molecule that allows the
survival of cells that would normally undergo programmed cell death. When cancer
cells grow, they appear to need the help of survivin. The molecule is abundant
in many types of cancers, including colon, brain, lung, skin and others, but
nearly nonexistent in normal cells.
SUZUKI COUPLING REACTION In this palladium-catalyzed reaction, the coupling partners are an electrophile, usually an aryl halide, and a nucleophile, usually an arylboronic acid, and the product usually is a biaryl
SYNAPSE The area of functional contact between 2 nerve cells; consists of the nerve terminals, the specialized regions of the 2 nerve cells in the immediate vicinity of the nerve terminals, & the gap (synaptic cleft) between the 2 cells. A synapse is a communicating junction between 2 cells but the communication is indirect even though the cells are in physical contact. The sending cell (presynaptic cell) secretes a chemical (neurotransmitter) that diffuses across the synaptic cleft & signals the receiving cell (postsynaptic cell). The majority of synapses are such chemical synapses but some synapses are electrical; in the latter, the signal passes directly from one neuron to another through a gap junction
SYNCOPE Partial or complete loss of consciousness with interruption of awareness of oneself and ones surroundings. When the loss of consciousness is temporary and there is spontaneous recovery, it is referred to as syncope or, in nonmedical quarters, fainting. Syncope accounts for one in every 30 visits to an emergency room.
Syncope is due to a temporary reduction in blood flow and therefore a shortage of oxygen to the brain. This leads to lightheadedness or a "black out" episode, a loss of consciousness. Temporary impairment of the blood supply to the brain can be caused by heart conditions and by conditions that do not directly involve the heart:

SYNTHESIS GAS CO + H Gas Mixt. formed by catalytic reforming of Methane (Natl. Gas)
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder. It may affect the skin, joints, kidneys, and other organs.
SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS A form of scleroderma
SYSTEOMICS which was defined as the integration of genomics, proteomics, and metabonomics