|PAGET'S DISEASE||Disease of unknown cause, characterized by changes in bone remodeling (formation & resorption)|
|PAIRED ELECTROSYNTHESIS||One useful marketable prodt is generated at the anode & a different useful marketable prodt is generated at the cathode|
|PapD (6,500,435)||periplasmic chaperone protein mediating the assembly of pili for P piliated bacteria|
|PAPILLOMA||A benign tumor of skin or of mucous surface; a wart|
|PAPILLOMA VIRUS||A small, naked, isosahedral virus that contains double-stranded DNA & that produces papillomas in animals|
|PARABEN||Esters of p-HydroxyBenzoic Acid|
|PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS||Disease that affects men 30 - 59 years age. Fungal infection that affects mainly lungs & skin. Later it affects liver & brain|
|PARAGRAPH IV CERTIFICATION (Generic Drug)||is a declaration that a patent listed in the Orange Book is invalid or will not be infringed by the generic drug in an ANDA.
|PARATHORMONE||A protein hormone, secreted by the parathyroid glands, that stimulates the release of Ca from bone & leads to an increase in the level of Ca in the blood|
|PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS||Hypothalamus's region involved in Appetite reduction|
|PARENTERAL||Referring to the introduction of a substance into an animal organism by ways other than that of the digestive tract, as in the case of an intradermal injection|
|PAREVE (Jewish Religion)||Foods that contain neither milk nor meat ingredients can be eaten at any time. These "pareve" ingredients are generally derived from minerals, fruit, vegetables, or fish|
|PARKINSONISM||Condition that resembles Parkinson's disease. It is sometimes caused by exposure to manganese, CO, or other toxicants &, unlike Parkinson's is often reversible|
|PAROXY NOCTURNAL HEMOGLOBINURIA||Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a rare, acquired disorder of red blood cells in which an abnormal cell surface molecule leads to premature destruction of the cells. This destruction is intermittent (paroxysmal).|
|PARTHENOGENESIS||The development of an organism from an unfertilized egg; the ability to reproduce without fertilization; the activation of an egg in absence of sperm|
|PARTRICIN||Heptaene macrolide antibiotic complex produced by "Streptomyces aureofaciens"|
|PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS||a type of congenital heart defect that occurs when a blood vessel called the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth, as it normally should|
|PATENT FORAMEN OVALE||The heart is divided into four separate chambers. The upper chambers, or atria, are divided by a wall called the atrial septum.
The foramen ovale is a flap or tunnel shaped hole in the atrial septum during fetal development that allows blood to travel through the heart without going to the lungs. When in the womb, a baby does not use his or her own lungs, receiving oxygen rich blood from the the mother through the umbilical cord. Therefore, blood can travel from the right side of the baby's heart to the left side of the heart through the foramen ovale, skipping the trip to the baby’s lungs.
This small flap-like opening normally closes shortly after birth as the pressure from the baby’s heart pushes the flap to the septal wall. If this opening does not close shortly after birth, a Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) results. For people with PFO, some blood from the right atrium can leak into the left atrium. PFO is the most common heart defect. In fact, one in four people may have a PFO to some degree, but in many cases the PFO is not large enough to create symptoms or require any immediate treatment in childhood.
Patent Foramen Ovale is categorized as an atrial septal defect, but with a different origin and symptoms than single-hole or multi-fenestrated atrial septal defects. ( learn more about atrial septal defects )
Many people grow up and lead normal lives without even knowing that they have a PFO. PFO is frequently not diagnosed until adulthood. However, there are a number of life-affecting and potentially harmful conditions that may be caused by PFO.
Patent Foramen Ovale is suspected to be a cause of embolic cryptogenic stroke. This type of stroke has no clearly known origin, but blood clotting at or near the PFO is one possible cause. Research is underway to verify this connection between embolic cryptogenic stroke and PFO. Learn more about PFO and stroke research.
In recent years, research into PFO closure has shown that there may be a connection between PFO and migraine headaches. People with migraine headaches who have had PFO closure for other reasons often reported reduction or even cessation of migraine headaches after PFO closure. For this reason, research is underway to determine the effect of PFO closure in reducing or eliminating some forms of migraine.
|PAUSON KHAND CYCLOADDITION||STANDARD SCOPE:
Combines alkene & alkyne with CO to give cyclopentenones
Alkene may be replaced by allene
|PEPTIDE NUCLEIC ACID||The backbone is made up of -NH-CH2-CH2-N-CH2-CO- [N-(2-aminoethyl)
glycyl] units; the bases are attached to the central N atom through an acetyl function (Base-CH2-CO-).
They resemble nucleic acids only because they contain the same bases; there is no phosphate or pentose
|PEPTOID||Are peptidelike chains of N-substituted glycines. They have the same backbone as proteins but have side chains on the N rather than on the alpha-C. They are like peptides but are invulnerable to protease degradation|
|PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION||See CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY|
|PERFORMANCE CHEMICAL||Mixtures of substances, proprietary prodts, formulated with carriers or solvents, & bought & sold for what they do|
|PERIODIC LIMB MOVEMENT DISORDER||called (nocturnal) myoclonus, which describes frequent or involuntary muscle spasms. Periodic limb movement was formally described first in the 1950s, and, by the 1970s, it was listed as a potential cause of insomnia. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder
Periodic limb movement disorder affects people only during sleep. The condition is characterized by behavior ranging from shallow, continual movement of the ankle or toes, to wild and strenuous kicking and flailing of the legs and arms. Furthermore, abdominal, oral, and nasal movement sometimes accompanies PLMD. Movement of the legs is more typical than movement of the arms in cases of PLMD. Movements typically occur for 0.5 to 10 seconds, in intervals separated by five to 90 seconds.
In 1979, the Association of Sleep Disorder Centers (ASDC) set the parameters for determining the presence of PLMD:
A formal diagnosis of nocturnal myoclonus requires three periods during the night, lasting from a few minutes to an hour or more, each containing at least 30 movements followed by partial arousal or awakening. (ASDC 1979)
Today, these parameters are a bit more relaxed, and PLMD usually includes any repetitive, involuntary movement during the night. These limb movements usually occur in deep stage two sleep, but often cause arousal. Thus, PLMD can cause poor sleep, which may lead to sleep maintenance insomnia and/or excessive daytime sleepiness.
The incidence of PLMD increases with age. It is estimated to occur in 5% of people age 30 to 50 and in 44% of people over the age of 65. As many as 12.2% of patients suffering from insomnia and 3.5% of patients suffering from excessive daytime sleepiness may experience PLMD.
|PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE||diseases of blood vessels outside the heart and brain. PVD is often characterized by a narrowing of the vessels that carry blood to leg and arm muscles.
|PERIPROSTHETIC OSTEOLYSIS||bone loss in the vicinity of a prosthesis—is the most serious problem limiting the longevity of artificial joints. It is caused by bone-resorptive responses to wear particles originating from the articulating surface|
|PERMEATE||IN ALL FOUR TYPES of membrane filtration, the liquid that passes through the membrane is known as the permeate, and the material that does not pass through is called the retentate. The membranes are made of a variety of materials, including polymers, ceramics, and metals. They are usually manufactured as flat sheets mounted on supports or as spiral-wound or tubular modules|
|PEROVSKITES||are metal oxides with an ABO3 formula, such as strontium titanate (SrTiO3), that show promise for oxidizing methane in air at temperatures that are low enough to avoid forming harmful nitrogen oxides (NOx).
|PERSONAL INFO. MAN.||practice and the study of the activities people perform in order to acquire, organize, maintain, retrieve and use information items such as documents (paper-based and digital), web pages and email messages for everyday use to complete tasks (work-related or not) and fulfill a person s various roles (as parent, employee, friend, member of community, etc.)|
|PESTICIDE TOLERANCE||To ensure the safety of the U.S. food supply, the EPA sets a tolerance limit, or maximum residue limit, for every registered use of a pesticide. This is the amount of a specific pesticide residue that may lawfully remain on each food commodity that has been treated with a pesticide. In establishing tolerances, EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide, how much it is applied & how often, & how much of it typically remains in the food. EPA may then set the tolerance lower than the typical residue level to ensure the food is safe. Tolerances are enforced by FDA & USDA|
|PETCOKE (PETROLEUM COKE)||Coal-Like Refinery By-Product|
|PETROLEOMICS||Analytical techniques could lead to new understanding of petroleum
CELIA M. HENRY
As recently as a few years ago, who would have thought that we could have a detailed picture of the components of petroleum?
At one time, scientists thought that the average molecular weight of crude oil constituents was on the order of 10,000 daltons, with some components as large as 1 million Da. Now, they are finding that crude oil contains few components larger than 1,000 Da. At a symposium at Pittcon earlier this month, scientists presented research that is increasing the understanding of the composition of this complicated mixture.
Playing off the “omics” terminology of the biological field, symposium organizer Alan G. Marshall, chemistry professor at Florida State University and director of the ICR program at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), has dubbed this new focus “petroleomics” because it involves the simultaneous analysis of many components of petroleum products. “I felt if there are as many components in one sample of crude oil as there are genes in the genome, then it’s not crazy to use the word petroleomics,” Marshall told C&EN.
|PHAGE DISPLAY (Proteomics)||Peptide or protein libraries are created on viral surfaces & screened for activity en masse. The peptides or proteins remain associated with the genes that encode them, making them easy to identify.
"It's pretty clear that the conventional way of analyzing potential disease genes on a one-at-a-time basis is not acceptable. "What is needed, is a ´process that is going to be able - rapidly, in an automated sense - aid in purification of the gene prodt., help identify its function, validate it as a target, & determine its role in the disease process so may be it can itself become a therapeutic".
Phage display fills this need. It can be used routinely to determine "binding molecules to hundreds of target proteins in weeks"
|PHAGOCYTE||A cell that engulfs bacteria & other foreign particles by phagocytosis|
|PHAGOCYTOSIS||The engulfment & destruction of foreign cells & particulate matter by a cell|
|PHARMACOGENETICS||The goal of pharmacogenetics is to predetermine a patient's response to a drug therapy on the basis of his or her genetic makeup, paving the way for tailor-made pharmaceuticals.
Study of how genetic variations affect the ways in which people respond to drugs. These variations can manifest themselves as differences in the drug targets or as differences in the enzymes that metabolize drugs. A difference in the target will usually lead to differences in how well the drug works, whereas differences in metabolizing enzymes can result in differences in either efficacy or toxicity
|PHARMACOGENOMICS||looks at genetic makeup or genetic variations and their connection to drug response. Variations in drug targets, usually proteins, and target pathways are studied to understand how the variations are manifested and how they influence response. The term pharmacogenetics is sometimes used instead, but it can also refer specifically to genetic profiles or tests that predict drug response|
|PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL||is used to describe materials that use phase changes (e.g., melting or freezing) to absorb or release relatively large amounts of latent heat at relatively constant temperatures.|
|PHASE TRAFFICKING (CombiChem)||an alternative to conventional solution-phase synthesis in which synthesis and purification are carried out more or less simultaneously. In phase trafficking, reagents, by-products, or products are directed into a separate phase so the products can be isolated easily from the reaction mixture. Phase-trafficking methods "can be mixed and matched to enable high-throughput synthesis of a wide array of compounds|
|PHENYLKETONURIA||A genetically inherited metabolic defect in humans that is characterized by mental retardation, if the defect is not corrected for in childhood, & that is due to a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase|
|PHEROMONES||Pheromones are chemical signals. Through a sex attractant pheromone, female insects attract mating partners. If the compounds are introduced in the field at concentrations that saturate the sensory organs of the males, the males are confused and mating is prevented. Disruption of the normal mating cycle leads to a decline in the target insect's population without harming other insects|
|PHILLIPS TRIOLEFIN PROCESS||2Propylene = Ethylene+2-Butene (Olefin Metha
|PHOSPHOPROTEOMICS||One way that cells communicate is by adding or removing phosphate groups at specific lo
cations along proteins. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for identifying such phosphorylation sites. Large-scale mass spec
trometry-based experiments have created vast catalogs of phosphorylation sites. This activity has become associated with one of the many "omics" fields
|PHOSPHORINANE||Phosphorous-contg. six-member heterocycle|
|PHOTOANGIOPLASTY||Blood Vessel Desobstruction by Phototherapy|
|PHOTONIC BAND GAP MATERIALS||Photonic band gap materials, that is, materials that can control the propagation of electromagnetic radiation by creating periodic dielectric structures, have been the subject of vigorous research in recent years. A photonic band gap material is one that prohibits the propagation of electromagnetic radiation within a specified frequency range (band) in certain directions. That is, band gap materials prevent light from propagating in certain directions with specified energies. This phenomenon can be thought of as the complete reflection of electromagnetic radiation of a particular frequency directed at the material in at least one direction because of the particular structural arrangement of separate domains of the material, and refractive indices of those domains. The structural arrangement and refractive indices of separate domains that make up these materials form photonic band gaps that inhibit the propagation of light centered around a particular frequency. (Joannopoulos, et al., "Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light", Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1995). One-dimensional photonic band gap materials include structural and refractive periodicity in one direction, two-dimensional photonic band gap materials include periodicity in two directions, and three-dimensional photonic band gap materials include periodicity in three directions|
|PHOTONIC CRYSTALS||Low-loss periodic dielectrics, or "photonic crystals", allow the propagation of electromagnetic energy, e.g., light, to be controlled in otherwise difficult or impossible ways. The existence of photonic bandgap in certain photonic crystals has given rise to the possibility that a photonic crystal can be a perfect mirror for light from any direction, with any polarization, within a specified frequency range. Within the frequency range of photonic bandgaps, there are no propagating solutions of Maxwell's equations inside a periodic medium. Consequently, a wave-front with a frequency within the gap which is incident upon the surface of such a crystal would be completely reflected|
|PHOTONICS||Information rransmission via photons
Photonic materials are endowed with optical properties that can be used to control the flow of light just as electronic materials are used to control the flow of electrons
|PHOTORESIST (Electronic Semiconductor Devices)||A key semiconductor fabrication technology is MICROLITHOGRAPHY - the etching, doping, & plating of devices onto semiconductor surfaces at resolutions of micro.m to nm. Achieving ever-finer patterns - needed for smaller & faster devices - depends on polymeric resins called photoresists|
|PHYTASE||Phytase reduces amount in manure by 30% by enabling animals to metabolize bound phytin P that occurs naturally in feed grains. In doing so, phytase also allows farmers to cut supplementation of inorganic phosphate additives; as laws have been passed in the Netherlands, major pig producing country that limits phosphate content in manurePhytase releases metabolic P in feed grains, lowering the need for P supple
ments & reducing the environmental impact of excreted phosphates
|PIEZORESISTANCE||is one example of a group of phenomena in which applying a weak force, in this case mechanical stretching, to a material can lead to a great enough change in electrical resistance to form the basis of sensing technologies|
|PIGMENT PREPARATION||combinations of pigments and pigment dispersants that are structurally analogous to pigments and are substituted by groups having a specific effect. The dispersants are added to the pigments in order to facilitate their dispersion in the application media, especially in varnishes, and in order to improve the rheological and coloristic properties of the pigments|
|PILI (Proteins)||To initiate infection bacterial pathogens must first be able to colonize an appropriate target tissue of the host. For many pathogens this tissue is located at a mucosal surface. Colonization begins with the attachment of the bacterium to receptors
expressed by cells forming the lining of the mucosa. Attachment is mediated via proteins on the bacterium that bind specifically to cellular receptors. These proteins, or adhesins, are expressed either directly on the surface of the bacterium, or more typically, as components of elongated rod-like protein structures called pili, fimbriae or fibrillae.
Type 1 pili are thought to be important in initiating colonization of the bladder and inducing cystitis, whereas P pili are thought to play a role in ascending infections and the ensuing pyelonephritis.
Such pili are heteropolymeric structures that are composed of several different structural proteins required for pilus assemblyTwo types of pili are of particular interest: P pili and type 1 pili. P pili-carrying bacteria recognize and bind to the gal.alpha.(1-4)gal moiety present in the globoseries of glycolipids on kidney cells in mammals. Type 1 pili-carrying bacteria recognize and bind to D-mannose in glycolipids and glycoproteins of bladder epithelial cells
|PILLING||Broken fibers in COTTON garments|
|PINDOLOL||1-(1H-Indol-4-yloxy)-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-propanol; 4-[2-hydroxy-3-(isopropylamino)-propoxy]indole; pinodolol. Pindolol is described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,471,515|
|PLASMA DISPLAYS||Plasma displays are those huge flat television sets that home appliance companies are proudly exhibiting in the busiest part of their stores these days. A typical consumer's reaction on seeing the bright colors of the display is an urge to immediately order one. But a look at the $6,000 to $10,000 price tag tends to cool down the enthusiasm. The Chemistry Behind The Plasma Display
A plasma display module is a sandwich made up of layers of glass, gases, metal, and various chemical materials.
The rear panel is a glass substrate onto which a dielectric layer has been laid out and address electrodes have been screen-printed or somehow photo-defined. The electrodes transmit the electrical charges that turn the gas inside the panel into plasma.
The dielectric layer insulates the electrodes. The dielectric, in turn, is covered with magnesium oxide to protect it from sputtering neon ions that are created when electricity activates the gas.
Above the dielectric layer, a barrier rib of tiny lines 200 mm in height is formed to separate the red, green, and blue phosphor layers. The barrier rib can be formed by screen printing, sandblasting, molding, or photolithography.
The front panel consists of a glass substrate on which is applied an indium tin oxide transparent electrode and another electrode made of silver to boost conductivity. To this, manufacturers add a black conductor to improve light contrast and a dielectric layer protected by magnesium oxide.
The front and rear panels are then joined together, and gases such as neon and xenon are injected between the two plates. The plates are sealed with molten glass frit. The panel is then linked to its electronic drivers.
The electrodes on the two plates are laid out orthogonally, with each intersection representing a pixel. These pixels are independently activated by the electrodes when high voltage is applied to the electrodes. The voltage transforms the rare gas into a plasma that emits ultraviolet light, which excites the phosphors that then emit red, green, or blue, depending on their coating. These are the colors that appear on the screen.
The most technically challenging part in the construction of a plasma display panel is the barrier rib, according to Yukichi Deguchi, general manager of Toray Industries' plasma display technical department. Seiichi Hasegawa, head of JSR Corp.'s electronics materials business, says the dielectric layer also poses a challenge. "The very consistent quality of the dielectric is essential because if there is a small defect, there is a very bright point when the viewer looks at the panel," he says.
Most plasma displays are made in Japan, and most suppliers of plasma display materials and components are Japanese. One major exception is DuPont, which supplies most of the silver and black electrodes. Texas Instruments, with which DuPont joined an early plasma display research consortium in Japan about a decade ago, remains an important supplier of integrated circuits
|PLASMAPHERESIS||The process of separating certain cells from the plasma in the blood by a machine; only the cells are returned to the person. Plasmapheresis can be used to remove excess antibodies from the blood.
The selective removal of certain proteins or antibodies. This process is sometimes used in the treatment of some peripheral neuropathies.
The removal of certain proteins from the blood.
A process for obtaining blood plasma without depleting the donor or patient of other blood constituents (such as red blood cells) by separating out the plasma from the whole blood and returning the rest to the donor's or patient's circulatory system.
Apheresis is the process of collecting and separating of blood components by automated cell separation equipment. Plasmapheresis is a type of apheresis sometimes used to remove harmful substances in the blood plasma of patients with some types of cancers. Cytapheresis is used to remove excess cells from the blood of some patients with leukemia. Apheresis is also used for collection of blood components used in transfusion therapy of patients with cancer.
A therapy in which blood is withdrawn from a patient, the plasma is removed and replaced, and the blood is returned to the patient in a transfusion. This leaves red and white cells in place but removes the antibodies. Plasmapheresis is used to treat several autoimmune diseases but has had mixed success with primary and secondary-progressive MS patients.
Removal of plasma, or the fluid portion of the blood that does not include cells, from the blood. This fluid contains the antibodies and its removal is an experimental treatment for MS.
Top Plasmapheresis is the process of filtering the blood through a machine. The filtration takes out proteins that may aggravate lupus.
A procedure to remove plasma from the body and to replace with fresh plasma. Can prevent chronic renal failure if the acute renal failure is due to an immunological condition.
The process of removing certain proteins from the blood and separating the specific cellular elements.
This procedure involves removing blood from the body, separating and discarding the plasma proteins, and then returning the patient's own blood into the body along with additional protein. In this way, autoantibodies may be removed from the blood stream in patients affected by autoimmune diseases. Plasmapheresis requires that a large double IV line be placed in a large vein and complications from IV line placement are the major source of concern from this procedure.
a procedure for removing unwanted substances from the blood in which blood is drawn, its plasma is separated and replaced, and the cleansed blood is returned to the body
plasma is separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
Plasmapheresis is the removal of (components of) blood plasma from the circulation. It is used as a therapy in particular diseases, and it is also the way by which blood donors donate only plasma, with remaining red cells and platelets returned to their circulatory systems up to twice weekly.
|PLASMID||Extrachromosomal pieces of cDNA. An extrachromosomal genetic element in bacteria. A plasmid is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that usually confers some evolutionary advantage to the host organism such as resistance to antibiotics, production of colicins. Plasmids replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome & constitute a useful tool in recombinant DNA technology|
|PLASMODIUM||A genus of parasitic protozoans which includes the organism that causes malaria in humans|
|PLASTIC LUMBER||Recycled plastic which has been extruded into a form similar to lumber. Plastic lumber may come in dimensions such as 4, 8, 12, and 16 foot lengths with cross-sections, measured in inches, of 2x2, 2x4, 2x10, 3x12, 4x4, and 6x6. Plastic lumber has a higher thermal expansion coefficient than wood. It is non-toxic, very weather resistant, and does not need to be painted. Uses for plastic lumber include material for signposts, picnic tables, park benches, and privacy fences.
(Synonyms: recycled plastic lumber)
|PLASTOMERS||metallocene-based polyolefins--are sometimes substitutes for TPEs and thermoset rubber. But it's still difficult to gauge their impact|
|PLATELET||A small, irregularly shaped disk present in the blood & that functions in blood clotting by releasing thromboplastin|
|PNEUMATIC FRACTURING||can best be described as a process whereby a gas is injected into the subsurface at pressures exceeding the natural insitu pressures present in the soil / rock interface (i.e. overburden pressure, cohesive stresses, etc.) and at flow volumes exceeding the natural permeability of the subsurface.
|POLYCYCLOALKENAMER||Obtainable by metathesis reaction of cycloal
kenes. Monomers used
- Norbornene &
|POLYDISPERSITY INDEX||Ratio of weight averaged MW to number averaged MW in synthetic polymers. It is a measure of MW distribution in polymers. The lower the ratio, the narrower the MW distribution|
|POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA)||Poly(Ester) derived from HydroxyAcids other than Lactic Acid|
|POLYMER BRUSHES||A novel class of materials with "smart surfaces" that can adapt to their environment and be tailored for a wide range of uses--including adhesives, microfluidics, lithography, and chromatography--is emerging from the application of state-of-the-art polymerization techniques.
ANALYSIS Boyes (sitting) and Brittain examine polymer brushes prepared by living radical polymerization techniques.
UNIVERSITY OF AKRON PHOTO
The materials, known as polymer brushes, consist of polymer chains tethered at one end, usually by covalent bonds, to a surface or interface.
"The surface is commonly an inorganic substrate such as gold or silicate, but can also be a polymer surface," according to William J. Brittain, professor of polymer science at the University of Akron, in Ohio
|POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION||A method for amplifying a DNA base sequence using a heat- stable polymerase and two 20-base primers, one complementary to the (+)-strand at one end of the sequence to be amplified and the other complementary to the (- )-strand at the other end. Because the newly synthesized DNA strands can subsequently serve as additional templates for the same primer sequences, successive rounds of primer annealing, strand elongation, and dissociation produce rapid and highly specific amplification of the desired sequence. PCR also can be used to detect the existence of the defined sequence in a DNA sample|
|POLYMORPHS (pharma.)||Polymorphs arise when molecules of a compound stack in the solid state in distinct ways. Although identical in chemical composition, polymorphs can have very different properties. They are distinguishable by various analytical techniques, especially X-ray powder diffraction. In addition, solids may form solvates and hydrates, also called pseudopolymorphs. Polymorphs tend to convert from less stable to more stable forms. The rate of conversion depends on the required activation energy and the differences in free energies. But no method yet exists to predict the polymorphs of a solid compound with significant certainty. The search for polymorphs is largely an empirical exercise|
|POLYURETHANE SYSTEMS||Formulated packages contg isocyanates & polyols|
|POMPE DISEASE||Pompe disease affects an estimated 5,000 to 10,000 patients worldwide and is clinically heterogeneous in the age of onset, the extent of organ involvement, and the rate of progression. The early onset form of the disease is the most severe, progresses most rapidly, and is characterized by musculoskeletal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cardiac symptoms that usually lead to death from cardio-respiratory failure between 1 and 2 years of age. The late onset form of the disease begins between childhood and adulthood and has a slower rate of progression that is characterized by musculoskeletal and pulmonary symptoms that usually lead to progressive weakness and respiratory insufficiency. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Office of Orphan Products Development has granted orphan drug designation for the active ingredient in AT2220 in the United States|
|POSITIVE PHOTORESIST (Electronics. Semiconductor)||A positive-tone resist is insoluble in the developer solvent but is solubilized by exposure to UV light.
For some years, fabricators have used a positive-tone resist of phenol novolac formulated with 2-diazonaphthoquinone. Novolac is a thermoplastic alkali-soluble, phenol-formol resin whose polymer chains have stopped short of cross-linking to the three-dimensional, thermosetting, insoluble form. The diazo compd is a dissolution inhibitor
When exposed to light, the diazo compd photolyzes to indene-2-carboxylic acid. When light-exposed areas are developed with aq. alkali, the indenecarboxylic acid leaches out, & the novolac resin also dissolves away.
|POSITRON||an elementary particle with positive charge; interaction of a positron and an electron results in annihilation|
|POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY||is a medical imaging method which can measure the concentration and movement of a positron emitting isotope in living tissue. Due to its inherent quantitative biochemical nature, PET is in the extraordinary position to reveal the molecular mechanisms of human disease and to facilitate the development of new drugs.
|POST OPERATIVE ILEUS||temporary impairment of gastrointestinal motility after abdominal or other surgeries.|
|PPAR PAN AGONIST (Diabetes)||Activate all the the PPAR subtypes|
|PRESBYCUSIS||A progressive high-frequency hearing loss that occurs with increasing age.
|PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVE||Adhesive which retains tack after release of the solvent, so that it can be bonded by simple hand pressure|
|PRIAPISM||Type of erectile dysfunction in which penis has "Erection" without any sort of stimulation|
|PRIMARY BATTERY||NonRechargeable. Reaction is Irrevesible,
so once it is complete, the flow of electrons ceases & battery becomes useless
|PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA||PH type I: is an autosomal recessive disorder of glyoxylate metabolism caused by deficiency of the hepatic peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), the gene of which has been sequenced and located on chromosome 2q37.3. Over 50 mutations in this gene have been identified so far with the c.508A>C (formerly G630A), 33_34insC and 731T>C accounting for about 50% of the mutations in the European and American population. The disease occurs because AGT activity is either low or absent (~ two thirds) or because it is mistargeted to the mitochondria (~ one third). PH-1 shows considerable phenotypic, enzymatic and genotypic heterogeneity.
PH type II: is again an extremely rare disorder with autosomal recessive transmission due to low or absent activity of the cytosolic enzyme glyoxylate reductase (GR). PH-II can be as heterogeneous as PH I, but it is generally less severe and systemic involvement is normally very rare. Nevertheless, there are patients with ESRF described in the literature.
It is believed that there may be at least another form of PH yet to be explained since several clinical centers have reported children with consistently high urinary levels of oxalate whose liver biopsies did not show the specific enzyme defect associated with type-I or II.
|PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY||Primary immunodeficiency disorders encompass more than 100 diseases caused by an immune system that does not function correctly. According to the Immune Deficiency Foundation, approximately 50,000 persons in the United States have one of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. For many people with primary immunodeficiency, the cause is a lack of antibodies. IGIV therapy can help restore IgG levels to near normal, helping the immune system function properly and prevent infections or fight them when they occur.
primary immunodeficiency disorders associated with defects in humoral immunity. These include but are not limited to congenital X-linked agammaglobulinemia, common variable immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiencies
|PRIMER (Nucleic Acid Chemistry)||Strings of nucleotides - for PCR Diag. Tests.
Short, single-stranded RNA or DNA segment that functions as the starting point for the polymn. of nucleotides
|PRINS REACTION||Olefin + CH2O + H2O = 1,3-Diol|
|PRINT.>CONV.>FLEXOGRAPHY||Raised image is created on flexible polymer
plate. Resulting relief plate is rolled through water-based ink & then transferred first to a series of metal cylinders & finally
|PRINT.>CONV.>GRAVURE||Image is engraved into a metal cylinder. The
recesses are filled with a water- or solvent-
based ink, which is then pressed onto paper.
|PRINT.>CONV.>OFFSET LITHOGRAPHY||Image is transferred to a printing plate using solvent-based inks. The image is then transfer
red to a rubber blanket & finally to paper.
|PRINT.>DIGITAL>INK-JET||Image is created by jetting droplets of water-
based or waterless ink onto paper
|PRINT.>DIGITAL>LASER||Image is produced by scanning a laser beam across a drum oated with organic photoconduc
tor to selectively remove charge. Charged areas attract dry toner particles, which are then fused onto paper.
|PRINT.>DIGITAL>LIQUID ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY||Image is produced by scanning a laser beam across a photoconductor-coated drum to select
ively remove charge. Liquid toner particles
are transferred to discharged areas on the
drum, then to a rubber blanket & finally to
|PRIVATE BANKING||Personalized financial and banking services that are traditionally offered to a bank s rich, high net worth individuals (HNWIs).
|PROACCELERIN||An accessory protein that participates in the activation of prothrombin to thrombin in both the extrinsic & intrinsic pathways of blood clotting|
|PROCESS CHEMISTRY||interface of organic chemistry with business. "The chemistry itself is an applied form of organic chemistry targeted at specific molecules. It's more than just the ability to make the molecule. It's the ability to make it with a high degree of specificity and quality, cost effectively, with low impact to the environment."
|PROCTOLOGY||Branch of Medicine dealing with Diag.,Etiology; Prevn. & Treat. of pathologies affecting the Anus & Colon|
|PRODRUG||Inactive or Latent Form Converted to Active Form by Enzyme|
|PROFILING PROTEOMICS||researchers identify proteins that are expressed in disease states at higher or lower levels than in normal states and thus serve as potential markers for those diseases.|
|PROGESTOGEN||A substance that induces progestational changes in the uterus; progestin or related synthetic compds|
|PROGNOSIS.||Determn of possibility of FUTURE occurrence of predetermined condition|
|PROGNOSIS. MEDICINE||"prognostic" test or assay provides specific information regarding the outcome of that disease-|
|PROMISCUOUS DRUG LEADS (Pharma.)||Some molecules culled from compound libraries look like promising drug leads: They're good at inhibiting a particular disease-causing enzyme. But soon it becomes apparent that these molecules aren't at all selective; they inhibit everything under the sun. Chemists call them "promiscuous."|
|PROMOTER||A region of DNA extending 150-300 bp upstream from the transcription start site that contains binding sites for RNA polymerase and a number of proteins that regulate the rate of transcription of the adjacent gene. (See Constitutive promoter)
A DNA site to which RNA polymerase will bind and initiate transcription
|PROPPANTS||Grainy materials that increase the flow of natl. gas & oil by propping up fissures in rock|
|PROSTATITIS||The term actually encompasses 4 disorders:
1. Acute bacterial prostatitis
2. chronic bacterial prostatitis
3. chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain
4. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
CPPS (Most Common) Symptoms include pain (pelvic and genitals), urinary frequency and erectile dysfunction
|PROTEASE INHIBITORS||Interfere with the maturation of the virus inside the cell|
|PROTEASE PAUNCH||Pathological condition characterized by body fat redistribution; resulting in wasting of arms & legs & increased fat around midsection.
Such condition is SIDE EFFECT of AIDS patients submitted to HIV Protease Inhibitor drugs
|PROTEASOME||"Proteasome" term coined by Goldberg Alfred L.; Cell biology prof. at Harvard Medical School; result of combination of "Protease" & "Some" (small particle or body).
In eukaryotic cells, the entire proteasome complex is called the "26S Proteasome".
It consists of a central, barrel-shaped 20S core unit, in which proteins are digested, & one or 2 19S proteasome particles, which cap the ends of the 20S proteasome unit & regulate entry of protein substrates into it.
The three-dimensional structure of the proteasome & its mechanism of action were determined in the mid-1990s at Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany, postdoc Michael Groll & prof. Robert Huber in the Dept of structural research & prof. Wolfgang Baumeister et al in the Dept of molecular structural biology [Science, 268, p. 533 & 579 (1995); Nature, 386, p. 463 (1997)].
Unlike conventional proteases, which cut a protein once, the 20S proteasome cleaves a protein many times. Goldberg's group has shown that the cut pieces range in length from 3-23 AA. After these small peptides are released from the proteasome, most are hydrolyzed to AA, but some are delivered to cell surface for display to the immune system
|PROTEIN DEAMIDATION||the process by which asparagine and glutamine amino acid side chains spontaneously shed their amide groups|
|PROTEIN DISULFIDE ISOMERASE||Cell enzyme that catalyzes disulfide cleavage & re-formation for correct folding of misfolded multiple (> 2) disulfide contg proteins|
|PROTEIN EXPRESSION PROFILING (Proteomics)||The study of expressed proteins in different cell types. Researchers often compare protein expression in diseased versus normal cells to identify potential disease-related proteins|
|PROTEIN FUNCTION||The traditional meaning of function should be updated in this postgenomic sequencing era (actual proteomic sequencing era; Feb. 2000) according to Prof. Eisenberg David of UCLA.
The function of a protein should no longer be thought of as converting a substrate to a prodt or as bringing about a binding reaction.
A new way to define protein function would be to describe the protein in the context of its interaction in the cell. "What we want to know about the protein is all the other molecules in the cell that it interacts with"
|PROTEOGENOMICS||has been coined to describe the merging of genomics, proteomics, small molecules, and informatics. And covering all the bases but working backwards researchers can take a deconstructive approach through reverse proteomics and reverse genomics|
|PROTEOME MINING||technology that allows for simultaneous identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic compounds that inhibit the activity of these targets|
|PROTEOMICS.||Embraces the study of the expression products of the tens of thousands of genes already on table as well as those crowding the horizon. It encompasses proteins, their structures, interactions & patterns of evolution. It aims to characterize every protein an organism produces from birth to death, in health & disease. It plans to unlock the deepest secrets of the cell - mapping, for example, the rhythmic rise & fall of its constituent proteins, the myriad reactions involved in their synthesis & degradation, the signaling pathways that launch numerous cascades of molecular events, & the "Housekeeping" rituals that maintain law & order in a cell's congested dynamic environment. At the same time, it promises to deliver the ultimate phylogenetic tapestry, a panoramic mosaic of the biochemical relationships developed among organisms through evolutionary time.
Proteomics is not the study of proteins one by one, as has traditionally been done, but in an automated, large-scale manner.
The field includes:
- "Transcriptional profiling" to determine "which genes are transcribed into
RNA in a particular cell type, developmental stage, or disease state"
- High-throughput expression & purification of proteins
- Protein profiling, the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis & mass
spectrometry to study the proteins expressed in a cell
- Protein-protein interaction studies to see which proteins function together,
primarily using a technique called "YEAST TWO-HYBRID" method
- Pathway analysis to understand signal transduction & other complex cell
- Large-scale protein folding & 3-D structure studies
- Bioinformatics analysis of proteomics data
It involves research that stradles the biological, biomedical, chemical, computer, mathematical & physical sciences.
It ultimately involves the determination of sequence, structure & function of all proteins involved in cell's life
|PROTEOMICS. (FIELDS STANLEY PROF.)||The analysis of complete complements of proteins.Proteomics includes not only the identification & quantification of proteins, but also the determination of their localiza
tion, modifications, interactions, activities & ultimately their function.
Ref.: Science [291, p. 1221 (2001)].
Fields Stanley is genetics & medicine prof. & Howard Hughes Medical Institute investiga
tor of the University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
|PROTOFIBRIL||It has taken a while, but the hypothesis that a precursor of the insoluble amyloid fibril may be the more dangerous entity is now gaining ground. And some researchers further believe that the smaller, soluble precursor, which is often called an amyloid oligomer or protofibril, may do its damage by creating holes--pores or ion channels--in cellular membranes|
|PSEUDOBULBAR AFFECT||A significant percentage of patients with neurodegenerative disorders experience on-going episodes of uncontrolled laughter or tearfulness. This symptom, described medically as pseudobulbar affect, is typically characterized by periodic episodes of laughing or crying out of proportion, or out of context to the basic social setting. The mechanism underlying these episodes is unclear. Although not physically harmful, the condition has a significant effect on the health of both patients and their caregivers|
|PSYCHROPHILIC ENZYME||Enzyme adapted to work at low T|
|PTCA (See Abbrev.)||mechanical dilatation device is disposed across an obstruction in the patient's artery and then dilated to compress the plaque lining the artery to restore patency to the vessel|
|PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY (Pharma.)||Delivering of Pulses of the Drug. With Pulsatile Delivery, one Dosage Form Releases an Initial Dose Followed by a Release-Free Interval, After which a Second Dose is Released, Followed by One or More Release-Free Intervals & Drug-Release Pulses|
|PUR (Abbrev.) SYSTEM||offer ready-for-use urethane raw materials packages for special applications|
|PURINE BINDING PROTEOME||subset of the proteins of a given proteome that bind to purine cofactors such as ATP or NADH|
|PURINE COFACTOR||certain chemical molecules that have nitrogen-containing ring structures and are critical to cellular function|