N

NANOFILTRATION Nanofiltration uses membranes to separate lower molecular weight organic solutes and small inorganic ions. It is applied for color removal and demineralization, for example
NANOTECHNOLOGY Given by science writer Ivan Amato in NSTC's "Nanotechnology: Shaping the World Atom by Atom" brochure:

The world as it works on the nanometer or "billionth" scale - & it lays out the following vision: "What could we humans do if we could assemble the basic ingredients of the material world with even a glint of nature's virtuosity? What if we could build things the way nature does - atom by atom & molecule by molecule?
NANOTECHNOLOGY Given by science writer Ivan Amato in NSTC's "Nanotechnology: Shaping the World Atom by Atom" brochure:

"In the language of science, the prefix NANO means one-billionth of something like a second or a meter. Nanoscience & Nanotechnology gene
rally refer to the world as it works on the nanometer scale, say from 1 nm to several hundred nanometers".

Nanotechnology is the latest of 3 megatrends that have emerged in the past 15 years:

1) INFORMATION technology
2) BIO technology
3) NANO technology
NARCOLEPSY Sleep disorder of neurological origin characterized by daytime multiple 5-15 min sleeping periods.
NEAR-CRITICAL WATER Characterized by
- T = 275C
- Pressure = 60 bar
- Density = 0.7
- Dielectric constant = 20
- Relative ionization constant = 1,000
NEGATIVE PHOTORESIST A negative-tone resist is soluble in the developer solvent but is cross-linked & rendered insoluble by exposure to UV light
NEGISHI COUPLING REACTION Suzuki Coupling Variation based on OrganoZn
Reagent
NEOINTIMAL HYPERPLASIA (Cardiology) Biological responses of blood vessels to vascular and endovascular procedures, such as vein grafting, limit the long-term success of these surgical interventions. The veins typically used in bypass surgery are thin-walled vessels that are designed for a low-pressure environment. Arteries are thick-walled vessels that have evolved to handle the high-pressure flow of blood from the heart. When the vein grafts used to bypass a blocked artery are exposed to the high pressure of arterial flow, there is significant stress on the thin wall of the veins. The vein responds to this perceived injury by causing its walls to thicken. Smooth muscle cells proliferate in the middle layer of the vein wall and migrate to the inner surface of the vein, lining it in a process known as neointimal hyperplasia
NERVE GASES Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), & Soman (GD). are volatile organophosphorus compounds that react with a hydroxy group in biological tissue to form a phosphate ester. When this reaction occurs at the catalytic site of acetylcholinesterase—an enzyme critical to nerve function—the enzyme’s activity is inhibited, leading to convulsions and death.

NEURALGIA Neuropathic pain
NEUROFIBROMATOSIS autosomal dominant genetic disorder associated with the development of multiple benign tumors and occasional malignant tumors. No effective treatment is available for either form of tumor and the malignant tumors, neurofibrosarcomas, are usually fatal despite aggressive surgical, medical, and radiotherapeutic treatment regimens (Martuza, R. L., Neurosurgery, MacGraw-Hill, Vol. 1, 1984, pp. 511-521).
NEUROPATHIC PAIN pain related to peripheral or central nervous system injury. It includes peripheral nerve injury such as that caused by diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and post-herpetic neuralgia, as well as central nervous system injury, such as that caused by spinal injury or stroke.
NEUTROPENIA See Leukopenia
NEUTROPHIL Type of white blood cell that ingests & kills bacteria
NEW DRUG APPLICATION is the process of obtaining approval from FDA to market a new drug.
NITINOL Ni+Ti Alloy
NITRIFICATION The oxidation of NH3 to nitrite or nitrate that is carried out in nature by nitrifying bacteria
NITROGENASE Enzyme in biological systems catalyzing reduction of N2 to NH3 (Biological Fixation)
NON HODGKINS LYMPHOMA NHL is a form of cancer that affects the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma currently is the sixth-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, is expected to claim the lives of 23,400 Americans this year, and has the second-fastest growing mortality rate. According to statistics from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), approximately 300,000 people are afflicted with NHL in the United States alone. Of that total, 25 to 40 percent have follicular NHL, making it the second most common type. Transformed NHL is an aggressive and difficult to treat form of follicular NHL with a particularly poor prognosis.
NON IONIC BLEED A phenomen in which liquid nonionic surfac
tants such as alc. ethoxylates bleed out of a prodt when formulated at high concn
NON POLARITY INDEX (Ester Lubricants) NPI = [(Total No. of C atoms) x MW]/(No. of Carboxylate x 100)
NON VOLATILE MEMORY Non-volatile memory, nonvolatile memory, NVM or non-volatile storage, is computer memory that can retain the stored information even when not powered. Examples of non-volatile memory include read-only memory, flash memory, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disks, floppy disks, and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punch cards.

Non-volatile memory is typically used for the task of secondary storage, or long-term persistent storage. The most widely used form of primary storage today is a volatile form of random access memory (RAM), meaning that when the computer is shut down, anything contained in RAM is lost. Unfortunately, most forms of non-volatile memory have limitations that make them unsuitable for use as primary storage. Typically, non-volatile memory either costs more or performs worse than volatile random access memory.

Several companies are working on developing non-volatile memory systems comparable in speed and capacity to volatile RAM. For instance, IBM is currently developing MRAM (Magnetoresistive RAM). Not only would such technology save energy, but it would allow for computers that could be turned on and off almost instantly, bypassing the slow start-up and shutdown sequence.

Non-volatile data storage can be categorised in electrically addressed systems (read only memory) and mechanically addressed systems (hard disks, optical disc, magnetic tape, holographic memory and such). Electrically addressed systems are expensive, but fast, whereas mechanically addressed systems have a low price per bit, but are slow. Non-volatile memory may one day eliminate the need for comparatively slow forms of secondary storage systems, which include hard disks.

NONGENERIC PHARMA DRUGS Drug marketed by Co. proprietary of
- Valid Patent or Legal Rights to Valid Pa-
tent &
- Registered TradeMark
NONSENSE MUTATIONS Alterations in DNA that when transcribed into mRNA, introduce a premature translation termination codon. This change halts the ribosomal translation process at an earlier site than normal, producing a truncated non-functional protein.
NOOTROPICS Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias
NORDIHYDROGUAIARETIC ACID 1,4-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dimethylbutane
NUCLEAR OVERHAUSER EFFECT The decrease in area of a given line in a NMR spectrum that is due to the transfer of energy from one proton to another; involves the change of a population of nuclei in a given energy level by saturating a nearby nucleus. The magnitude of the effect (that is, the decrease in the area of the line) increases the closer the 2 protons are to each other. The effect can, therefore, be used to measure intramolecular distances
NUCLEOSIDE A glycoside composed of D-ribose or 2-deoxy-D-ribose & either purine or pyrimidine
NUCLEOTIDE 1. The building block of nucleic acids that consist of nucleoside plus a phos
phoric acid residue esterified to one of -OH of sugar.
2. Any phosphorylated nucleoside, whether or not it is a genuine block of
nucleic acid
NUTRITION PREMIX Custom blends of vitamins, minerals & other supplements used in foods & drinks
NYLON MXD6 Poly(Amide) derived from
- Meta Xylylene Di Amine &
- Adipic acid