|MACROLIDE ANTIBIOTICS||One of a number of antibiotics, such as erythromycin & oleandomycin, that are similar in their structure, action, & antimicrobial spectrum, & that are characterized by having a large lactone ring that contains anywhere from 14-20 C atoms; produced by various strains of "Streptomyces" & inhibit protein synthesis|
|MACULAR DEGENERATION||Eye's disease caused by abnormal growth of blood vessels in macula area. The new blood vessels are very fragile, start to bulge, leak blood & fluid, lifting the retina off its membrane & ultimately leading to blindness.|
|MAGNETIC RAM||Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory is a non-volatile computer memory (NVRAM) technology, which has been under development since the 1990s|
|MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY||a non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal blood vessel anatomy. The technique is used routinely in carotid and cerebral angiography, as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
|MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING||a technique widely used in the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders and a variety of diseases. MRI is a non-invasive procedure and provides clear, vibrant images that enable physicians to diagnose and manage disease. This technique uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to generate images of the body in 2-D and 3-D.
|MAGNETIC STORAGE||Magnetic storage and magnetic recording are terms from engineering referring to the storage of data on a magnetized medium. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization in a magnetizable material to store data and is a form of non-volatile memory. The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads. As of 2009, magnetic storage media, primarily hard disks, are widely used to store computer data as well as audio and video signals. In the field of computing, the term magnetic storage is preferred and in the field of audio and video production, the term magnetic recording is more commonly used. The distinction is less technical and more a matter of preference|
|MAGNETITE||The mineral form of black iron oxide, Fe3O4, that often occurs with magnesium, zinc, and manganese and is an important ore of iron.|
|MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL FLUID||Fluid which turns into paste upon application of magnetic field|
|MAILLARD REACTION||Reaction of Amino group of Aminoacid or Peptides with Carbonyl of Reducing Sugars resulting in Schiff base|
|MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA||Rapid onset of extremely high fever with muscle rigidity
occurring during the administration of general anesthesia
|MALIGNIN||10,000 Dalton polypeptide which has been found to be present in most malignant cells regardless of cell type or location (refs.1 to 8). Unlike tests such as CEA , which measure less well-defined antigens whose serum levels tend to be inconstant but elevated late in the disease, the AMAS test measures a well-defined antibody whose serum levels rise early in the course of the disease. In some cases, the AMAS test has been positive (elevated) early , i.e. 1 to 19 months before clinical detection.
|MASTER CLONE||are circular pieces of DNA (plasmids) that, when engineered into cells, induce those cells to express the corresponding protein.|
|MATRIPTASE||Enzyme belonging to group of: Transmembrane Serine Protease & associated with cancer|
|MCLG (Abbreviation)||Indicates maximum level at which contaminant in drinking water is believed to be safe|
|MEDICAL FOOD||In 1988, the FDA defined a medical food as a food administered under the supervision of a physician and intended for the specific dietary management of a disease for which distinctive nutritional requirements are established|
|MEDICAL TRANSCRIPTION||converting voice-recorded reports as dictated by physicians and/or other healthcare professionals, into text format.|
|MEGILLOS||The Five Scrolls or The Five Megillot (חמש מגילות, Hamesh Megillot or Chomeish Megillôs) are parts of the third major section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), which is Ketuvim ("The Writings"). These five relatively short biblical books are grouped together in Jewish tradition.|
|MELAS SYNDROME||Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes
MELAS is a progressive and fatal disorder with no known treatments. The earliest symptoms include muscle weakness, fatigue, recurrent headaches and seizures. The reported age of onset varies between 3 and 40 years, with most patients presenting between the ages of 5 to 15 years. The syndrome can manifest as stroke-like episodes in patients under 20 years of age. Seizures, dementia, impaired muscular function and neurodegeneration can be observed as the disease progresses. MELAS patients also have high glucose levels and approximately 30 percent have Type 2 Diabetes.
MELAS is caused by a point mutation in mitochondrial DNA, leading to the development of poorly functioning mitochondria, which supply cellular energy. The diagnosis can be confirmed through genetic testing.
|MENINGOCOCCEMIA||Bloodstream infection caused by "Neisseria meningitidis" bacteria & is a form of SEPSIS.
Meningococcemia progresses very rapidly because bacteria release endotoxins into the blood
|MESOTHELIOMA||Type of cancer associated with exposure to asbestos|
|MESSENGER RNA||A single-stranded RNA mole. that is synthesized during transcription, is complementary to one of the strands of double-stranded DNA, & serves to transmit the genetic information contained in DNA to the ribosomes for protein synthesis|
|MESSENGER RNA HYPOTHESIS||The hypothesis, proposed by Jacob & Monod, that the RNA mole. serves as the template for the synthesis of proteins; this RNA mole., the mRNA, is transcribed from DNA, has a base seq. that is complementary to that of one of the strands of duplex DNA, & carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes where the proteins are synthesized|
|META-1,1,3,3-TMXDI (See Abbrev.)||Benzene-1,3-Di[C(Me)2-NCO]|
|META-ISOPROPENYL-ALPHA,ALPHA-DI-Me BENZYL ISOCYANA||Benzene-1-[C(Me)2-NCO]-3-[C(Me)=CH2]|
|METABOLIC SYNDROME||The metabolic syndrome is a set of disorders that significantly increases the risk of heart disease. Its biochemical underpinnings are tremendously complicated and are still being worked out. What's certain now is that among its major components are excess weight, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia (high levels of triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoproteins in the blood, leading to buildup of plaque in blood vessel walls), and insulin resistance (the inability of muscle, fat, and liver cells to absorb glucose in response to insulin, leading to excess glucose in the blood). Each is a risk factor for heart disease, but a person with several of these disorders--that is, a person with the metabolic syndrome--is vastly more at risk.
|METABOLISM||1. The sum total of all the chemical & physical changes that occur in a
living system, which may be a cell, tissue, organ, or organism. The reac
tions of metabolism are almost all enzyme-catalyzed & include transforma
tions of nutrients, excretion of waste prodts., energy transformations, synth
etic & degradative processes, & all the other functions of a living orga
nism. Metabolism is broadly divided into ANABOLISM, which encompa
sses the synthetic reactions & CATABOLISM, which encompasses the
2. The sum total of all the chemical & physical changes in a living system
with respect to one class of compds., as in "aminoacid metabolism"
|METABOLISM-DIRECTED DRUG OPTIMIZATION||To improve the compounds' duration of action, authors identified principal sites associated with their metabolic breakdown. By eliminating or blocking such sites while maintaining elements critical for potency - a process called metabolism-directed optimization - they found several thrombin inhibitors that exhibited good oral bioavailability and improved half-lives in preclinical studies|
|METABOLOMICS||The InterDisciplinary Study Of Metabolites|
|METABONOMICS||measurement of the complete metabolic response of an organism to an environmental stimulus or genetic modification. Some people use the term metabolomics to refer to metabonomics at the level of a single cell type, rather than a larger system.
|METAMATERIALS||are composites designed to have a negative index of refraction, which imparts the extraordinary capability to bend light away from or around an object made from or coated with the material. These composites could lead to lenses that permit optical imaging at the molecular level, nanocircuits for more powerful computers, and, to the thrill of science-fiction lovers, cloaking devices that render objects invisible to the human eye|
|METAPHORIC THINKING||Which Generates New Ideas & Concepts By Connec-
ting The Problem Under Consideration To Some-
thing That Occurs In An Entirely Unrelated System Such As Nature
|METHOTREXATE||4-Amino-10-methylfolic Acid; Amethopterin. Pharma. Use: Antineoplastic; Antirheumatic. Insect chemosterilant|
|MICROCHIPS (Drug Delivery)||Microchips for delivery of a wide variety of molecules are provided. Microchips are miniaturized devices constructed using methods commonly applied to the manufacture of integrated circuits such as ultraviolet (UV) photolithography, reactive ion etching, and electron beam evaporation. The microchips provide control over the rate the molecules are released as well as the time at which release begins. The time of release can be controlled passively or actively.
In the preferred embodiments, a material which is impermeable to the surrounding fluids and to the molecules to be delivered is used as the substrate. Examples of substrate materials include ceramics, semiconductors such as silicon, and degradable and non-degradable polymers. Reservoirs are etched into the substrate using either chemical (wet) etching or ion (dry) etching techniques commonly used in microfabrication. Hundreds to thousands of reservoirs can be created in this manner and contained in a single microchip. Typically, a release system containing the molecule to be delivered is inserted into the reservoirs by injection or other means. When present, the release system controls the rate of release of the molecule. The rate of release is a function of the composition and structure of the release system. However, the device design makes it possible to fill the reservoirs with pure molecules (no release system) in solid or liquid form. Each of the reservoirs of a single microchip can contain different molecules and/or different amounts, which can be released independently.
In a preferred embodiment, the reservoir cap enables passive timed release, not requiring a power source, of molecules. The reservoirs are capped with materials that degrade at a known rate or have a known permeability (diffusion constant) for the molecules to be delivered. Therefore, the degradation or diffusion characteristics of the cap material determine the time at which the release of molecules in a particular reservoir begins. In effect, the microchip provides dual control of the release of molecules by selection of the release system (rate controller) and selection of the cap material (time controller, and in some cases, rate controller).
In another preferred embodiment, the reservoir cap enables active timed release, requiring a power source, of molecules. In this embodiment, the reservoir caps consist of a thin film of conductive material that is deposited over the reservoir and patterned into the shape of an anode surrounded by a cathode. Conductive materials capable of dissolving into solution upon the application of an electric potential, including metals such as copper, gold, silver, and zinc and some polymers, are used in the active timed release device. When an electric potential is applied across the electrodes, the conductive material of the anode above the reservoir oxidizes and dissolves into solution, exposing the release system containing the molecules to be delivered to the surrounding fluids. The molecules to be delivered are released into the surrounding fluids by diffusion out of or by degradation of the release system. The frequency of release is controlled by incorporation of a miniaturized power source and microprocessor onto the microchip. Activation of any reservoir can be achieved by preprogramming the microprocessor, by remote control, or by a signal from a biosensor.
|MICROCONTACT PRINTING||A rubber stamp is used to form a pattern by depositing a SAM (Abbrev.) of a organic compd on a substrate. The stamp is fashioned by applying a silicone rubber precursor to a lithographically prepd surface having a relief pattern – the “master” After it is cured, the rubber is peeled away, providing a stamp that has the relief pattern of the master.
The rubber stamp is “inked” with a soln of a long-chain alkane-thiol & is then brought briefly into physical contact with a substrate – in this case the Au-covered Mylar sheet. Wherever the stamp touches the Au, a SAM is formed quickly & easily. When the substrate is subsequently immersed in a etching bath, all the Au that’s not protected by the monolayer is etched away.
|MICROFILTRATION||Microfiltration, which can be used for clarification of fermentation broth and biomass, is a low-pressure, cross-flow membrane process for separating colloidal and suspended micrometer-size particles. "Almost all membrane filtration is carried out as cross-flow filtration to avoid the formation of a filter cake and a high concentration of solutes or solids on the membrane surface," explained Johan Persson at the exhibition. Persson is a public relations coordinator at the Swedish multinational engineering group Alfa Laval, based in Lund.
"The liquid flows parallel to the membrane at high velocity and under pressure, thereby splitting the feed stream into two streams, one of which passes through the membrane," Persson said. "The continuous flow of liquid across the membrane performs a cleaning action, whereby fouling is reduced and the concentration on the surface is decreased to ease passage through the membrane
|MICROFLUIDICS ACTIVE COMPONENTS||There are two major groups of subcomponents in a typical fluidic system, she noted. "Passive subcomponents--such as channels, mixers, separation structures, connection units, and passive valves--cannot be directly controlled," she explained. "They do not have their own power supply. For example, a passive valve responds to fluidic pressure, which means that it opens or closes automatically if the pressure changes. Active components, on the other hand--such as pumps, active valves, and actuators--can be shut on and off."
|MICROFLUIDICS PASSIVE COMPONENTS||There are two major groups of subcomponents in a typical fluidic system, she noted. "Passive subcomponents--such as channels, mixers, separation structures, connection units, and passive valves--cannot be directly controlled," she explained. "They do not have their own power supply. For example, a passive valve responds to fluidic pressure, which means that it opens or closes automatically if the pressure changes. Active components, on the other hand--such as pumps, active valves, and actuators--can be shut on and off."
|MICROTUBULES||Microtubules are intracellular filamentous structures present in all eukaryotic cells. As components of different organelles such as mitotic spindles, centrioles, basal bodies, cilia, flagella, axopodia and the cytoskeleton, microtubules are involved in many cellular functions including chromosome movement during mitosis, cell motility, organelle transport, cytokinesis, cell plate formation, maintenance of cell shape and orientation of cell microfibril deposition in developing plant cell walls. The major component of microtubules is tubulin, a protein composed of two subunits called alpha and beta. An important property of tubulin in cells is the ability to undergo polymerization to form microtubules or to depolymerize under appropriate conditions. This process can also occur in vitro using isolated tubulin.
Microtubules play a critical role in cell division as components of the mitotic spindle, an organelle which is involved in distributing chromosomes within the dividing cell precisely between the two daughter nuclei
|MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT (MCI)||MCI is an impairment in cognition, specifically memory performance, that is frequently associated with aging. The degree and type of impairment distinguishes MCI from dementia in that MCI patients exhibit deficits in secondary tests of memory, but perform normally on standard tests measuring other cognitive domains. Thus, MCI is defined as a clinical disorder that is distinct from early stages of dementia, particularly Alzheimer's type dementia, and can therefore be specifically targeted for treatment intervention|
|MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCN||The amount of compd (antibiotics) required to kill the bacteria|
|MISHNAH||também conhecida como Mixná ou Mixna (em hebraico משנה, "repetição", do verbo שנה, ''shanah, "estudar e revisar") é uma das principais obras do judaísmo rabínico, e a primeira grande redação na forma escrita da tradição oral judaica, chamada a Torá Oral|
|MITOGEN||An Agent that causes Cells to Divide & Multiply|
|MITOSIS||The division of the nucleus of eukaryotic cells which occurs in 4 stages designated prophase, metaphase, anaphase & telophase|
|MIX AND SPLIT SYNTHESIS (CombiChem)||A technique used to make very large libraries|
|MOLECULAR BEACONS||Fluorescent Nucleic Acid Probes|
|MOLECULAR WEIGHT CUT-OFF||the molecular weight at which the membrane rejects 90% of solute|
|MONGOLISM||A congenital abnormality characterized by imbecility & due to the presence of one of the autosomes in the triploid rather than in the diploid state|
|MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY||are pure antibodies designed to bind to a specific antigen target.|
|MONOCYTE||A large, circulating, phagocytic white blood cell, having a single well-defined nucleus and very fine granulation in the cytoplasm. Monocytes constitute from 3 to 8 percent of the white blood cells in humans.
|MONONUCLEOSIS||Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, a benign proliferation of infected B lymphocytes (Henle, G., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59(1):94-101 (1968)) and can also cause acute and rapidly progressive B lymphoproliferative disease in severely immune compromised patients or in experimental infection of tamarins (Miller, G., Fields Virol., 2nd ed., 1921-58 (1990)).|
|MORPHOGENICS||is a broad-based proprietary platform technology that regulates the ability of a host organism to repair mutations that occur during DNA replication. All proliferating cells duplicate their genetic material prior to dividing into two siblings (‘sibs”). During the replication process, thousands of mutations occur that are corrected prior to cell division by DNA repair mechanisms. One of the most robust repair mechanisms is the highly conserved process called mismatch repair (“MMR”), which proofreads newly replicated DNA for mutations. The process is similar to a computer spell check function. Once the MMR process is completed and mutations in the new genome have been corrected, the cell divides into two genetically identical sibs. Cells with dysfunctional MMR accumulate mutations throughout their genomes leading to mutant gene(s) that yield sibs with traits different from that of the parent|
|MOTHERBOARD||The main circuit board of a microcomputer. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset.
On most PCs, it is possible to add memory chips directly to the motherboard. You may also be able to upgrade to a faster PC by replacing the CPU chip. To add additional core features, you may need to replace the motherboard entirely.
|MTAP or MTASE (Abbrev.)||Enzyme that Converts MethylThioAdenosine into Methionine|
|MUCOSITIS||Damage to the gut from the chemotherapy (cancer treat)|
|MULTI TASKER SYNDROME||- Dramatic Dip in Employee Productivity Due to Growing Number of Media
In many companies people are communicating all day long. To reach employees, many employers use a broad range of (new) media, such as email, intranet, phone, blogs, websites, instant messaging (IM), web conferencing, sticky notes, internal memo's, text messages, newsletters and corporate magazines. But is this effective? No, says software company Netpresenter. More and more employees are suffering from MTS, or Multi Tasker Syndrome, which has a dramatic impact on the productivity of these employees
|MULTIPLE MYELOMA||A form of Bone cancer. Cancer that starts in bone marrow|
|MULTIPLEXING||Identifying many wavelengths at once|
|MUSCARINIC RECEPTOR||A synaptic acetylcholine receptor to which muscarin binds, thereby mimicking the action of acetylcholine. Such receptors are found at smooth muscle end plates & in the brain|
|MUTAGENESIS||damage to the differentiated animal|
|MXD6 NYLON||Poly(Amide) of
- Adipic acid &
- m-Xylene DiAmine
|MYASTHENIA GRAVIS||A disease, characterized by profound muscular weakness, that is due to the formation of Ab to the receptors for acetylcholine. Binding of the Ab to the receptor decreases the level of active receptors in the tissues & decreases the efficiency of neuromuscular transmissions|
|MYCOTOXINS||"Mycotoxins" generically refer to a number of toxic molecules produced by fungal species, such as polyketides (including aflatoxins, demethylsterigmatocystin, O-methylsterigmatocystin etc.), fumonisins, alperisins (e.g., A.sub.1, A.sub.2, B.sub.1, B.sub.2), sphingofungins (A, B, C and D), trichothecenes, fumifungins, and the like. Polyketides are a large structurally diverse class of secondary metabolites synthesized by bacteria, fungi, and plants and are formed by a polyketide synthase (PKS) through the sequential condensation of small carboxylic acids. Katz and Donandio (1993) Annu Rev. Microbiool. 47:875-912; Brown et al. (1996) PNAS 93:14873-14877; Silva et al. (1996) J. Biol Chem. 271: 13600-608.
Aflatoxin B1, is the principal member of the aflatoxin (AF) family of polyketide mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nomius. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent mycotoxin known to man. For example, AF was characterized as the causative agent for the death of more than a hundred thousand poultry in England that had ingested AF-contaminated peanut meal. This discovery led to legislation regulating the trade of AF-contaminated agricultural commodities.
Sterigniatocystin (ST) is a related polyketide mycotoxin, which is produced by several members of the Aspergillus. ST is the second to last intermediate in the biosynthesis of AF. Kelkar et al. (1997) J. Biol Chem. 272: 1589-94. Various Aspergillus species that produce AF and ST are known to be pathogenic to corn, grains and nuts and are known to produce these mycotoxins during the growth of the crops and during storage, leading to the introduction of AF and ST into primary food stuffs. AF and ST are acutely toxic and carcinogenic and are a serious concern from human and animal health perspective. Busby & Wogan (1985) in Chemical Carcinogens (Searle ed., 1985) pp 945-1136, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C.
Trichothecenes are another family of sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and other molds that are known plant pathogens. These compounds are potent inhibitors of protein synthesis in eukaryotes (Kimura et al. (1998) J. Biol Chem. 273: 1654-1661) and reportedly bind to the 60S ribosomal subunits to prevent polypeptide chain initiation or elongation. Trichothecenes are also an important group of mycotoxins that cause serious problems of food pollution. They have been implicated in incidents of mycotoxicosis including vomiting, dermatitis and hemorrhagic septicemia in humans and livestock, resulting in loss of productivity and even death. Lastly, fumonisins (F) are another structurally distinct class of mycotoxins produced by several Fusarium species that is involved in food poisoning and toxic effects. Scott (1993) International Journal of Food Microbiology 18:257-270 and the references therein provide a review of the Fuminosins.
|MYELIN BASIC PROTEIN||A major myelin protein of the mammalian CNS. Upon injection into guinea pigs, rabbits, or rats, it induces allergic autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an inflammation of the brain & spinal column. The protein is rich in basic aminoacids|
|MYELOABLATIVE THERAPY (Oncology)||is a very intense regimen of chemotherapy designed to destroy all cells that divide rapidly. These cells include some blood cells and hair cells, as well as malignant cancer cells|
|MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES||Historically, the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have been referred to as oligoblastic leukemia, refractory anemia, smoldering acute leukemia, or preleukemia.1 They represent a heterogeneous hematopoietic disorder derived from an abnormal multipotent progenitor cell, and are characterized by a hyperproliferative bone marrow, dysplasia of the cellular elements, and ineffective hematopoiesis.2 MDS can be indolent or aggressive, depending on the subclassification (discussed below). Recognition of this entity has increased over the past decade, and should be suspected in older adults with anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, or a combination of these abnormalities. Not surprisingly, morbidity and mortality result from anemia, bleeding, and infection, along with transformation to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), which occurs in approximately one third of patients.3-5 MDS can be cured with bone marrow transplantation, a procedure prohibitively toxic in older patients with this diagnosis, and estimated to be available for only 5-10% of MDS patients. Thus, most treatments focus on alleviation of symptoms, reduction in transfusion requirements, and improvement of quality of life.
|MYELOPEROXIDASE||A lysosomal enzyme of phagocytic leukocytes that aids in the destruction of alien objects by forming hypochlorite from H2O2 & chloride ions|
|MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION||Repentine condition of OXYGEN's SUPPLY < OXYGEN's DEMAND; resulting in heart muscle tissue death. That OXYGEN's inbalance is due to ISCHEMIA; which in turn is due to coronary arteriosklerotic blockade (THROMBUS)|
|MYOCARDITIS||Inflammation of heart muscle|
|MYOMECTOMY||Removal of a myoma of the uterus through an abdominal incision|