|IATROCHEMIST||Alchemist who dabbled in the prepn. of medicines|
|IDIOPATHIC||Denoting a disease of unknown cause|
|IDIOPATHIC ORBITAL INFLAMMATORY SYNDROME||Printer-Friendly Email This Discuss This
From Medscape Ophthalmology
Idiopathic Orbital Inflammatory Syndrome
Rod Foroozan, MD
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Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS), also known as orbital pseudotumor, is one of the most common acute orbital processes. The pathogenesis of IOIS remains unclear, but the clinical findings have been well-described and may include orbital signs of proptosis, diplopia, decreased vision from optic neuropathy or choroidal folds, and conjunctival injection. Depending on the specific structure involved, IOIS may be further characterized as myositis, dacryoadenitis, or optic perineuritis.
The diagnosis of IOIS is most commonly made on a clinical basis, often in combination with orbital imaging studies; however, in some patients biopsy is required to exclude other orbitopathies that may cause similar symptoms.
Idiopathic Orbital Inflammatory Syndrome: Clinical Features and Outcomes
Swamy BN, McCluskey P, Nemet A, et al
Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1667-1670
The authors of this retrospective case series reviewed the records of 24 patients with biopsy-proven IOIS to characterize the clinical features and outcomes and compare them with the results of orbital biopsy.
Although 98 patients with IOIS were initially included, orbital biopsy was required as an inclusion criterion and that limited the number to 24. Presenting symptoms and signs in the 24 patients included pain (N = 14), swelling or mass effect (N = 19), diplopia (N = 9), proptosis (N = 15), and decreased vision (N = 5). The histopathologic findings included classic changes of IOIS (N = 9), sclerosing changes (N = 13), vasculitic changes (N = 1), and granulomatous changes (N = 1). There did not appear to be a correlation with the clinical findings and the results of orbital biopsy. Treatments included oral steroids in the majority, as well as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenalate, and cyclosporine. Recurrence of IOIS occurred in 42% of patients.
IOIS is often a diagnosis that is dependent on the clinical circumstances. In many patients an orbital biopsy is not required. The requirement of biopsy may have caused selection bias in this study. Those who underwent biopsy may have been more likely to have atypical findings or IOIS that was less likely to respond to oral steroids.
Of note, there was no correlation between the histopathologic findings and clinical course in this group of 24 patients. Traditionally, patients with the sclerosing form of IOIS have been thought to have more treatment-resistant disease with a poorer prognosis. This study did not show that the sclerosing form of IOIS had a worse prognosis. It also showed a higher rate of recurrence for the classic type of IOIS.
|ILEUS||Acute or chronic Intestine closing & paralysis|
|IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA||Adult Immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a chronic and potentially serious autoimmune disorder characterized by low platelet counts in the blood, a condition known as thrombocytopenia. A normal platelet range for a person without ITP is 150,000 - 400,000 platelets per microliter of blood. The risk of a bleeding event increases when platelet counts drop to less than 30,000 platelets per microliter.
With ITP, platelets are destroyed by the patient's own immune system. ITP has historically been considered a disease of platelet destruction; however, recent data also suggest that the body's natural platelet production processes are unable to compensate for low platelet counts in the blood. Increasing the rate of platelet production may address low platelet counts associated with ITP.
|IMMUNOCYTOKINES (Oncology)||Fusion Protein of
- AntiBody Protein &
- Cytokine Protein
|IMMUNOLOGY||The science that deals with resistance to disease|
|INDUCTIVE POWER TRANSFER||power transfer technique where power is coupled across an air (or other non-permeable material) gap by magnetic induction.
In other words, power is transfered without direct contact to a cable - wireless
|INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE||is the term generally applied to two diseases, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease|
|INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY||as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information.
Today, the term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term has become very recognizable. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of entire systems.
When computer and communications technologies are combined, the result is information technology, or "infotech". Information technology is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information. Presumably, when speaking of Information Technology (IT) as a whole, it is noted that the use of computers and information are associated.
In recent years ABET and the ACM have collaborated to form accreditation and curriculum standards for degrees in Information Technology as a distinct field of study separate from both Computer Science and Information Systems. SIGITE is the ACM working group for defining these standards.
|INHERITABLE GENETIC MODIFICATION||Any biomedical intervention that can be expected to modify the genome that a person can transfer to his or her offspring (AAAS)|
1) Function = Polymerizable MonoMER
2) Function = Polymn. INItiator.
|INK JET CONTINUOUS PROCESS||Where ink under pressure forms a stream of droplets that are directed into place|
|INK JET DROP-ON-DEMAND PROCESS||Ink is released as needed. Drop-on-demand technologies can regulate ink pressure through electrical & mechanical means, such as piezoelectric print heads, or by temperature, where heat generates vapor bubbles to force ink droplets through the nozzles|
|INORGANIC SUNSCREEN||TiO2. ZnO. Work by reflecting & scattering UV light. ZnO offers better UV-A protection than TiO2|
|INSULIN RESISTANCE||the inability of muscle, fat, and liver cells to absorb glucose in response to insulin, leading to excess glucose in the blood|
|INTERBODY||The Interbody segment refers to the interdiscal space between each of the vertebrae of the spine.|
|INTERFEROMETER (FTIR SPECTROMETER)||At the heart of FTIR instruments is an interferometer that modulates radiation by splitting a beam of light from a source and then recombining the two beams in such a way that intensity variations in the combined beam are related to differences in the paths traveled by the two "halves." The path-length differences are commonly controlled by reflecting half of the light from a fixed mirror and the other half from a moving mirror, as is done, for example, in instruments based on the 100-year-old Michelson interferometer design.
Michelson interferometers work quite well, Manning noted, but they require precise motion of the moving mirror. They also require the moving mirror to remain perfectly perpendicular to the light source. Small imperfections in the alignment of the interferometer components detract from the device's optical performance and ultimately lead to photometric instability, weak spectral signals, and poor signal-to-noise ratios. And although instrument manufacturers have worked out various solutions to satisfy the stringent requirements, the common commercial designs may not perform well in rapid-scanning measurements.
|INTERNET BROWSER||Software package used to view pages on the World Wide Web (including Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mosaic|
|INTERNET PROTOCOL||Computers are identified individually by IP
Number. The IP with the help of other protocols, reveals the Internet Adress of user, time he spent connected, if he used blogs or social networks, or which sites he
|INTERNET ROUTER||A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are usually tailored to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. For example, on the Internet, information is directed to various paths by routers.
Routers connect two or more logical subnets, which do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router. The term "layer 3 switch" often is used interchangeably with router, but switch is a general term without a rigorous technical definition. In marketing usage, it is generally optimized for Ethernet LAN interfaces and may not have other physical interface types. In comparison, a network hub does not do any routing, instead every packet it receives on one network line gets forwarded to all the other network lines.
Routers operate in two different planes :
Control plane, in which the router learns the outgoing interface that is most appropriate for forwarding specific packets to specific destinations,
Forwarding plane, which is responsible for the actual process of sending a packet received on a logical interface to an outbound logical interface
|INTRAOPERATIVE LYMPHATIC MAPPING||Solid tumor cancers such as breast, melanoma, lung, colorectal and head-and-neck cancer frequently spread via the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system (also known as the immune system) is an important network of channels and filters that make up the body's main line of defense against disease.
Lymph channels contain a clear, watery fluid that contains white blood cells, called lymphocytes, which fight infection and disease. Along the network are bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes or glands. These nodes are responsible for the manufacture and storage of the disease- or infection-fighting lymphocytes. Lymph nodes are clustered in the neck, under the arms, in the groin and abdomen and may swell and become tender when the body is fighting infection (such as in strep throat). The body has thousands of lymph nodes that are connected via the lymphatic system and collectively harness the body's defenses.
The lymphatic system provides a vital function in fighting disease; however, this intricate network also creates an ideal pathway for cancer cells to travel and spread.
When a person develops a malignant tumor, usually it is not the primary tumor itself that ultimately kills a person. Rather, death is caused by the spread of the cancer to vital organs such as the liver, brain or lungs. It is generally thought that the spread of cancer is caused by the migration (or draining) of tumor cells from the initial tumor to nearby lymph nodes and eventually to other vital sites via the lymphatic system. Cancer surgeons and medical oncologists believe the determination of whether a patient's primary tumor has spread to the lymph nodes is a major determinant of a patient's long-term prognosis. The spread of cancer to the patient's lymph nodes is established by the examination of the nodes by pathology to determine if tumor cells are present. If tumor cells are determined to be present in the lymph nodes, the patient's stage or severity of disease is increased. The staging of the cancer establishes the post-surgery treatment protocol for the patient.
In the case of breast cancer, standard therapy typically involves the surgical removal of the primary tumor followed by a determination whether the cancer has spread to a patient's lymphatic system. The determination of the spread of disease is accomplished by removing nearby lymph nodes for biopsy. Prior to intraoperative lymphatic mapping ("ILM") described below, it was not uncommon for a surgeon to remove virtually all (~20-30) of the lymph nodes in the surrounding area (a process known as auxiliary node dissection). This radical, and often unnecessary, procedure caused a large number of patients to experience significant complications following surgery while producing a high percentage of inconclusive pathology results.
In melanoma and colorectal cancers, the staging of solid tumors is even more complicated as it is often difficult to identify and then locate which of the nearby lymph nodes are potentially involved and draining from the tumor site. The surgeon may remove too many "clean"lymph nodes unnecessarily or fail to remove a cancerous lymph node that later leads to the spread of disease. Better solutions are clearly needed for identifying the pathway from the cancer to the lymphatic system and in isolating the initial spread of disease to the lymph nodes.
Intraoperative Lymphatic Mapping (ILM)
In an ILM procedure, a radioactive tracing agent is injected at the site of the primary tumor. Following injection, the tracing agent follows the drainage path of the tumor to the nearest lymph node or nodes, referred to as the "sentinel node(s)."A gamma detection device is used to detect the path of the tracing agent. Since the lymph nodes are connected, oncologists believe that if the sentinel nodes show no sign of malignancy, then the downstream nodes in the pathway are likely to be clear of disease. As such, the removal of other nearby lymph nodes would be clinically unnecessary. Therefore, the ability to rapidly locate and biopsy sentinel nodes provides vital information to the physician in determining if the cancer has spread or if it is localized to the site of the primary tumor.
|INTRATHECAL||(Science: anatomy) within a sheath, for example, cerebrospinal fluid that is contained within the dura mater. It also refers to drugs administered into the cerebrospinal fluid bathing the spinal cord and brain.
|INTRAVASCULAR ULTRASOUND||Technique in which a tiny ultrasound probe
is inserted into the coronary arteries to determine the change in plaque during treat.
|INTRON||A noncoding DNA sequence within a gene that is initially transcribed into messenger RNA but is later snipped out. See Coding, DNA, Messenger RNA, Transcription
DNA sequence that interrupts the protein-coding sequence of a gene; an intron is transcribed into RNA but is cut out of the message before it is translated into protein.
the DNA sequence in a eukaryotic gene that is not translated into a protein
|IONOMICS||the study of how genes regulate levels of single-element ions in cells|
|IONTOPHORESIS||Process in which, ELECTRICAL CURRENT is used for the "on-demand" delivery of pharma. drugs across the skin|
|IPHONE||The iPhone is Apple s first Internet-enabled smartphone. It combines the features of a mobile phone, wireless Internet device, and iPod into one package.|
|IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME||It is a chronic FUNCTIONAL disorder of digestive tract. The term "functional" characterizes diseases in which there is no evidence of morphological or structural changes.
Various articles show that bowel reactivity is related to foods in general & not to any food in particular.
There is no specific treatment for the syndrome. Emotional factors should not be considered the cause of the syndrome; but emotional factors may increase the symptoms
- Gas excessive formation
- Abdominal pain & spasms
- Diarrhea & Constipation (in alternating sequence)
Food dietetic recommendations
- Avoid gas producing foods
- Avoid milk
- Avoid fructose & sorbitol
- Avoid fats
|ISATOIC ANHYDRIDE||N-Carboxyanthranilic acid, cyclic anhydride
Anthranilic acid N-carboxylic acid anhydride
|ISCHEMIA||Deficiency of Blood in a Tissue due to Functional Constriction of Blood Vessel|
|ISLET CELL||Pancreas Hormone-Secreting Cells|
|ISRAEL||CAN I SPEND SOME TIME GETTING TO KNOW ISRAEL WITHOUT ACTUALLY MOVING THERE?
There are several options available to you. Many major Jewish organizations sponsor a three month Active Retirees Program in Israel. This program offers a "living experience" in Israel, usually during the winter months. Participants work at various volunteer jobs during the mornings and study Hebrew in the afternoons. Cultural and educational activities are offered in the evenings -- lectures, folkdancing, home hospitality, etc. Tours to various parts of the country are also included.
If you are aged 50 or over, in good health, and physically capable of working, you are eligible for the Active Retirees program. Check with local chapters of organizations in your area to find out if they sponsor the program.
Two week seminars are also offered occasionally by Tnuat Aliyah of the WZO Aliyah Department. Participants tour extensively, meet retirees in various parts of the country and attend workshops relating to retirement in Israel.
In addition, regular pilot tours are arranged periodically. If you are interested in participating in a pilot tour, contact your local aliyah movement or shaliach.
Of course, it is also possible to come on your own, rent an apartment and just try out living in Israel while investigating your options. Tourist visas can be extended for up to 27 consecutive months.
Counselors at various immigrant associations offer guidance on various aspects of living in Israel (e.g. housing, health insurance) as well as various programs for retirees. They also offer a variety of other services, including counseling & support for olim experiencing "culture shock."