|FABLESS||In Electronics: Chip Design & Project With NO
|FABRY DISEASE||lysosomal storage disorder caused by inherited genetic mutations in the GLA gene, which result in deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-GAL). Deficient alpha-GAL activity leads to lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3), which is believed to cause the various symptoms of Fabry disease, including pain, kidney failure and increased risk of heart attack and stroke.|
|FAHR DISEASE||Progressive calcific deposition in the walls of blood vessels of the basal ganglia, in young to middle-aged persons; occasionally associated with mental retardation and extrapyramidal symptoms|
|FDA APPROVABLE LETTER||official notification from the FDA that
contains conditions that must be satisfied prior to obtaining final U.S.
|FEED||Food for Non-Human Animals|
|FEEDBACK DE-EXCITATION||The molecule that plants use to protect themselves from the dangers of getting too much sun during photosynthesis has now been revealed by a combination of ultrafast spectroscopy and plant genetics.
Plants rely on sunlight to generate chemical energy via photosynthesis. It's been known for more than two decades that plants protect themselves from excess light, which can lead to oxidative damage to chlorophyll and other key photosynthetic pigments. But the biophysical mechanism of this protective process--known as feedback de-excitation--has remained mysterious
|FEMOROACETABULAR IMPINGEMENT||is a condition of too much friction in the hip joint. Basically, the ball (femoral head) and socket (acetabulum) rub abnormally creating damage to the hip joint. The damage can occur to the articular cartilage (smooth white surface of the ball or socket) or the labral cartilage (soft tissue bumper of the socket).
FAI generally occurs as two forms: Cam and Pincer. The Cam form (Cam comes from the Dutch word meaning “cog”) describes the femoral head and neck relationship as aspherical or not perfectly round. This loss of roundness contributes to abnormal contact between the head and socket. The Pincer form (Pincer comes from the French word meaning “to pinch”) describes the situation where the socket or acetabulum has too much coverage of the ball or femoral head. This over-coverage typically exists along the front-top rim of the socket (acetabulum) and results in the labral cartilage being “pinched” between the rim of the socket and the anterior femoral head-neck junction. The Pincer form of the impingement is typically secondary to “retroversion”, a turning back of the socket, “profunda”, a socket that is too deep, or "protrusio", a situation where the femoral head extends into the pelvis. Most of the time, the Cam and Pincer forms exist together- i.e., "mixed impingement"..
FAI is associated with cartilage damage, labral tears, early hip arthritis, hyperlaxity, sports hernias, and low back pain.
FAI is common in high level athletes, but also occurs in active individuals
|FENTON REACTION||In the Fenton reaction, ferrous ion reacts with hydrogen peroxide, producing ferric ion, hydroxyl ion, and hydroxyl radical:
Fe2+ + H2O2 = Fe3+ + OH–+ OH
|FERROCIFEN||Ferrocene - substituted tamoxifen|
|FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME||is a centuries-old condition that is estimated to affect between 2 to 4% of the population, and is the second most commonly diagnosed rheumatological disorder after osteoarthritis. The symptoms of FMS are severely debilitating and are characterized by chronic and widespread pain and stiffness throughout the body accompanied by severe fatigue, poor sleep and headache. There is also a high incidence of associated neurologic, allergic, cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and affective symptoms among sufferers. Patients with FMS have at least comparable disability, more pain, and lower quality of life than patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis.
Historically, fibromyalgia syndrome has defied simple medical explanation. However, more recent research and evidence indicates that FMS is a clearly identifiable medical condition. Preliminary data in the literature indicates there may be a genetic predisposition and a number of associated objective biochemical, hormonal, and neurotransmitter differences. It is hoped that with further research the level of understanding of FMS will continue to increase, so that optimum diagnostic tools and treatments can be developed.
In the meantime, there are evidence-based pharmacologic (drug) and non-pharmacologic (non-drug) multidisciplinary interventions available. While treatment currently does not offer a cure, patients can learn how how best to manage FMS, and in many cases, take back control to lead more fully functional & productive lives
|FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR||type of switch in which a semiconducting channel bridges two electrodes designated "source" and "drain." Current flow between these electrodes is controlled by a third electrode known as a "gate." By applying a voltage to the gate, the semiconductor's state can be changed--reversibly--from insulating to conducting, thereby switching the transistor on or off.|
|FILE OVER PROTEST (Pharma.>FDA)||procedure permitted by regulation, which allows a sponsor to have its NDA filed and reviewed when there is disagreement over the acceptability of the NDA.
|FimC (6,500,434)||periplasmic chaperone protein that mediates assembly of type 1 pili in bacteria|
|FimH (6,500,434)||is the D-mannose-binding adhesin that promotes attachment of type 1-piliated bacteria to host cells via mannose-containing glycoproteins on eukaryotic cell surfaces. FimC is its periplasmic chaperone protein. FimH is also highly conserved not only among uropathogenic strains of E. coli, but also among a wide range of gram-negative bacteria. For example, all Enterobacteriacea produce FimH. Thus, vaccines incorporating the FimH antigen should exhibit a broad spectrum of protection.
|FINE CHEMICAL||Pure, single substance produced by chemical reactions & bought & sold on basis of their chemical identity. Pharmaceutical fine chemicals include
- Intermediates for drug production
- Bulk active drugs ready to be compounded with inert pigments, solvents &
fillers - excipients - & made into dosage forms
Identities of fine chemicals are well known & substitutions cannot be made
|FIRST PASS EFFECT (Pharma./Oral Bioavailability)||Rapid metabolism of drugs in the gastrointestinal tract drastically reduces the amount that reaches the target. The phenomenon is called the first-pass effect. For about 60% of oral drugs, Sellers explains, the culprit is oxidation by the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A) enzyme system|
|FISCHER TROPSCH PROCESS||preparation of hydrocarbons from synthesis gas (i.e., a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen)|
|FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS||Any of several catalytic processes originating in Germany & using synthesis gas mixt of CO & H to produce aliphatic linear hydrocarbons & oxygenated derivatives. It is also called the synthine process. It is one of a number of processes that may be applied to production of liquid fuels from coal.|
|FLAT SCREENS (Displays/Electronics)||2 Types:
- Liquid Crystal Displays &
- Plasma Displays
- Computers &
- TV sets
|FLIP FLOP EFFECT||Color Dependence on Viewing Angle|
|FLOCCULANT (Water Treat.)||help particles bind together so they can be removed from water.|
|FLUIDIC DIODE (MicroFluidics)||"A fluidic diode has no moving parts." "It directs flow by using microstructures with different flow resistance in the two directions."
|FLUORODEDIAZONIATION||Regiospecific introduction of fluorine into aromatic compds via diazonium salts|
|FOLDAMERS||oligomers that adopt a specific conformation in solution|
|FOLEY CATHETER||A flexible plastic tube (a catheter) inserted into the bladder to provide continuous urinary drainage.
The "Foley" has a balloon on the bladder end. After the catheter is inserted in the bladder, the balloon is inflated (with air or fluid) so that the catheter cannot pull out but is retained in the bladder as an "indwelling" catheter. Removal is accomplished simply by deflating the balloon and slipping the catheter out.
The "Foley" is named for the American urologist Frederic Eugene Basil Foley (1891-1966).
|FORCE FIELD||the space around a radiating body within which its electromagnetic oscillations can exert force on another similar body not in contact with it|
|FORWARD CHEMICAL GENETICS||In a classic genetic screen, also called "forward genetics", mutagens or point mutations cause random mutations throughout the genome of a model organism. Mutants that show a change in a specific characteristic (a phenotype) are then used to discover the identity of genes responsible for that phenotype. In the chemical genetic counterpart to this method of discovery, a wide variety of small molecules are screened, & the ones that cause specific phenotypes in cells & organisms are then used to determine the protein target of the chemicals.
To use the lock-and-key metaphor, forward chemical genetics involves taking a few keys into a big house & randomly trying as many locks as possible. Once you discover something interesting behind one of the unlocked doors - such as a novel phenotype - you can go back to identify the lock that was involved. In doing so, maybe, just maybe, you have identified a new target for drug discovery. And the help you get started on studying this new lock, you can just use the key that unlocked the door, which can serve as a lead compd., for new drug discovery
|FRAGILE X SYNDROME||The most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans which occurs in about 1 out of 2000 newborn males; it is associated with a fragile site on the X chromosome|
|FREE RUNNING SPORT||the art of moving through your environment using only your body and the surroundings to propel yourself--is a sport without boundaries. It can be practiced anywhere, alone or with a group|
|FULLERENE||[n] a form of carbon having a large spheroidal molecule consisting of an empty cage of sixty or more carbon atoms|
|FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS||attempts to move data from structural genomics toward biological function by understanding what genes do, how they are regulated, and their activity.
|FUNGUS||A plant protist that is not photosynthetic & that is devoid of chlorophyll; fungi generally contain a mycelium & are frequently coenocytic|
|FUSION SPLICING (TeleCom)||In optical fiber installation and repair, the permanent joining of two fibers by melting the glass and allowing the molten ends to meld. Note: The melting point of glass is approximately 2000 degrees Celsius.|