|E FACTOR||A Measure Of Chem. Proc. Efficiency|
|ECEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION DYES||Colors derived from or based on NATURAL sources, do not have to undergo FDA batch testing.|
|EDEMA||Fluid accumulation in living cell|
|ELASTAN||Generic Name (Globally Except Australia & USA) for Elastomeric PolyUrethane Fiber|
|ELECTRIDES||are materials in which electrons are trapped at stoichiometric concentrations, effectively becoming the smallest possible anions|
|ELECTRO DISCHARGE MACHINING||a technique for shaping the surfaces of a metal object by immersing in a dielectric liquid the object and a tool that emits an electric discharge of high current density and short duration|
|ELECTROCHEMICAL WINDOW||Electrochemical potential range over which the electrolyte is not reduced or oxidized at an electrode (electrochemistry)|
|ELECTROPORATION||DNA Introduction in Tissue Cells by Electric Pulses|
|ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL FLUID||Fluid which turns into paste upon application of electric field|
|EMERALDINE BASE||Polyaniline has several non-conductive oxidation states. The most stable of those is emeraldine base (EB), having equal amounts of reduced and oxidized repeating units|
|EMOTIONAL LABILITY||See PSEUDOBULBAR AFFECT|
|ENDOCARDITIS||Inflammation of tissue that covers heart`s cavities|
|ENDOCRINE GLAND||A ductless gland of internal secretion that produces one or more hormones which are secreted directly into the circulation|
|ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER||Chemicals that stimulate or retard the production of hormones|
|ENDOCRINOLOGY||The science that deals with the structure, function, & the products of the endocrine glands & other specialized secretory cells|
|ENDOCYTOSIS||The process whereby cells take up fluids & particles by pinching off the plasma membrane. The uptake of large particles is known as phagocytosis & that of small particles, solutes & fluids is known as pinocytosis|
|ENDOMORPHIN-2||a tetrapeptide produced in the brain that suppresses pain by activating the -opioid receptor|
|ENDOPHTHALMITIS||Endophthalmitis involves inflammation of the intraocular cavities of the eye, usually caused by infection. It typically results as a complication of ocular surgery, intraocular injections or trauma. The injections can expose the eye to potential pathogens and leave behind a needle tract that can also serve as an entrance for a bacterial infection. In addition, retinal surgery is increasingly performed using a new sutureless technique, leaving open wounds to heal over time and potentially exposing the inner structures of the eye to possible infection. Symptoms of endophthalmitis can include pain, redness, lid swelling and decreased visual acuity. Treatment includes antibiotic injections to the infected eye. Despite aggressive therapy, endophthalmitis can be devastating; frequently requiring enucleation, or removal of the infected eye|
|ENDORPHIN||[n] a neurochemical occurring naturally in the brain and having analgesic properties
See Also: enkephalin, neurochemical, peptide
|ENDOSCOPE||An instrument for examining visually the interior of a bodily canal or a hollow organ such as the colon, bladder, or stomach|
|ENDOSCOPIC VESSEL HARVESTING||In EVH, a healthy blood vessel, such as the saphenous vein from the leg or the radial artery from the arm, is removed through a small incision for use during CABG surgery to bypass a blockage in the heart. Open vein harvesting requires a lengthy incision that is often extremely painful and prone to healing complications. EVH is considered a standard of care in the United States, with 80 percent of all CABG surgeries utilizing this technique.|
|ENEDIYNE||Large carbon ring contg 2 triple bonds separated by a double bond.
Enediynes are characterized by a nine- or 10-membered ring containing two triple bonds separated by a double bond. The enediyne group readily cyclizes via a diradical intermediate that cleaves DNA, giving rise to enediynes' powerful antitumor activity
|ENHANCED PERMEABILITY & RETENTION EFFECT||First discovered by Hiroshi Maeda of the University of Kumamoto in Japan in 1986.
New blood vessels in tumors are "leaky" to passively target tumors. Because tumor blood vessels are more permeable than blood vessels in other tissue, drugs enter tumor tissue fairly easily.
|ENTERAL COMPN.||are compositions for oral consumption or tubal feeding intended to replace natural food products that cause or aggravate allergies or other conditions in some individuals|
|ENTERIC HYPEROXALURIA||Enteric hyperoxaluria accounts for approximately 5% of kidney stone patients evaluated in stone clinics and is secondary to a variety of functional and anatomical small bowel problems including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, pancreatic insufficiency etc. Surgical procedures like jejuno-ileal bypass, external biliary drainage or ileal resections leading to chronic fat malabsorption are associated with complications of hyperoxaluria and stone disease. The common finding among these disorders causing hyperabsorption of oxalate is malabsorption of bile salts and fatty acids.
The colon has been identified as the primary site of increased oxalate absorption due to increased availability of free oxalate and increased permeability of the intestinal mucosa. Persistent diarrhoea and fat malabsorption results in less intestinal calcium available to bind oxalate thereby increasing the availability of free oxalate in the gut and its excretion in urine. Exposure of colonic mucosa to excess bile salts has also been shown to increase oxalate permeability. Enteric hyperoxaluria is characterized by severe hyperoxaluria (usually ¡Ý80mg/day), low urinary volume, hypocalciuria and hypocitraturia. The source of urinary oxalate is predominantly exogenous i.e. derived from the dietary sources.
|ENTOMOLOGY||The study of insects|
|ENZYME MOONLIGHTING||One enzyme, one physiological role. That's how most scientists have traditionally looked at it. But there's a growing appreciation that some enzymes "moonlight"--that is, in addition to their "primary" catalytic function, they hold down one or more other important nonenzymatic jobs.
Some of the most well-known moonlighting proteins--a term coined by Gregory A. Petsko, professor of biochemistry and chemistry at Brandeis University--are found in the lens of the eye. There you'll find a variety of enzymes that have abandoned their catalytic functions to play a structural role in the lens. These so-called crystallins in the lens include those known elsewhere in the body as lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase.
The enzyme gephyrin also moonlights. Gephyrin helps assemble a common molybdenum-containing enzyme cofactor. But it also plays an entirely unrelated structural role, anchoring proteins important to neurotransmission at the correct place in the brain.
Then there's cytochrome c. This heme protein, found in the membranes of mitochondria, plays a crucial role in the electron-transport chain that cells use to produce energy. But cytochrome c also moonlights as a signal for apoptosis, the process by which cells commit suicide. In response to cell damage or other signals, cells release cytochrome c into the intermembrane space, where it stimulates apoptosis by forming a protein complex that signals apoptosis.
Scientists are just beginning to understand how these and other moonlighting proteins manage to exert their dual functions. Whether an enzyme does its enzymatic or its moonlighting job may be determined by its physiologic location. Or an enzyme's moonlighting function may be controlled by the kind of protein complex it's in or the structural conformation it takes on. Other moonlighters, like cytochrome c, may simply use different binding sites on the same protein to do two different jobs.
"Moonlighting is one way of getting more out of a limited protein repertoire," notes Shelley D. Copley, an associate professor of molecular, cellular, and developmental biology at the University of Colorado. And although moonlighting may well be widespread among proteins, predicting which proteins lead double lives remains challenging, she suggests.
More practically, moonlighting may explain some of the side effects of drugs targeted at specific proteins. It may also hint at why some therapies that attempt to compensate for the loss of a protein could fail to make up for both that protein's normal and moonlighting roles.
|EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA||Disease that causes the skin to peel and blister with even the slightest touch.|
|EPIGENOMICS||takes a whole-genome approach to studying environmental or developmental epigenetic effects, primarily DNA methylation, on gene function. Thus, epigenomics focuses on those genes whose function is determined by external factors|
|EPILEPSY||Sudden excitation that spreads through the brain and causes recurrent seizures that can severely impair a person's quality of life. It affects some 100 million people worldwide, and about 30% of those stricken have a severe form of the disease that results in more than 100 seizures per day.
|EPITHELIUM||1. The sheet of cells, consisting of one or more layers, that covers surfaces
& lines tubes of animal tissue
2. Membrane that covers the internal walls of blood vessels
|EPITOPE||Antibody-binding Site on Antigen|
|EQUIVOCAL APPENDICITIS||Hard to Diagnose Appendicitis|
|ERYTHEMA||Human Skin Reddening caused by Sun Exposure|
|ERYTHEMA NODOSUM LEPROSUM||Inflammatory complication of leprosy that results in painful skin lesions on the arms, legs & face|
|ERYTHROPOIETIN||A glycoprotein mitogen & hormone (MW 23,000) produced by the kidneys & that stimulates formation of erythrocytes|
|ESOPHAGEAL VARICES||In medicine (gastroenterology), esophageal varices are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the esophagus|
|ETHERNET||is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs).|
|ETIOLOGY||The study of causes of disease|
|ETIOLOGY||The study of causes of disease|
|EUBACTERIA||A term used originally to denote "true" bacteria as opposed to other microorganisms; now used to designate all bacteria other than archaebacteria.|
|EUKARYOTIC CELL||A higher organism (unicellular or multicellular) that consists of cells that possess a true nucleus; the nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane & contains the genetic material within multiple chromosomes|
|EXOCYTOSIS||The process of releasing materials such as neurotransmitters from cells|
|EXPOSOME||Record of all exposures, both internal & external, an individual receives over his or her lifetime, from conception onward.|
|EXTENDED TETHERING (Pharma.>Drug Discov.)||the technique takes advantage
of the inherent affinity of an "Exten
der" for part of a binding site on a
protein. The extender recruits fragmen
ts with affinity for an adjacent part
of the site, & these fragments can be
identified by MS. Extender-fragment con
jugates are then tested for activity & elaborated as needed.
|EXTRAVASATION||The leakage of intravenous drugs from the vein into the surrounding tissue.31
Extravasation injury usually refers to the damage caused by leakage of solutions from the vein to the surrounding tissue spaces during intravenous administration.
Once an extravasation has occurred, damage can continue for months and involve nerves, tendons and joints. If treatment is delayed, surgical debridement, skin grafting, and even amputation may be the unfortunate consequences