D

DATA STORAGE Any type of information - words, figures, still or moving images, sound and music - can be created into a single electronic form - digital. Once in digital format, they can be shared, copies, processed, indexed and transmitted from computer to computer, quickly and flexibly.
DEBENTURE/COMMERCIAL PAPER A debenture in finance, is a long term debt instrument used by governments and large companies to obtain funds. It is similar to a bond except the securitization conditions are different. A debenture is unsecured in the sense that there are no liens or pledges on specific assets. It is however, secured by all properties not otherwise pledged. In the case of bankruptcy debenture holders are considered general creditors.

The advantage of debentures to the issuer is they leave specific assets unencumbered, and thereby leave them open for subsequent financing.

In practice the distinction between bond and debenture is not always maintained. Bonds are sometimes called debentures and vice-versa
DEBTOR IN POSSESSION Financing Comprises Loans Made To Bankrupt
Companies So They Can Reorganize Without Being Liquidated
DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS occurs when a diver or submarine ascends to the water s surface too quickly, and nitrogen gas that was dissolved in blood forms bubbles that clog blood vessels that supply oxygen to the heart and central nervous system. This can result in massive stroke, paralysis and death
DENATURED ALCOHOL EtOH to which another liquid has been added to make it unfit to use as a beverage
DENDRIMER Highly Branched Non-Crosslinked Polymer
DENDRITIC CELLS immune system cells that identify foreign proteins
DENDRITOPHAGE are dendritic cells (specialized immune cells) derived from the patient s own white blood cells
DENDROCHEMISTRY the chemical analysis of precisely dated tree rings
DENGUE VIRUSES A virus group of 4 distinct serotypes that belong to the family of "Flaviviridae". They are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) & usually cause a benign syndrome (dengue fever), characterized by fever, headache, & joint & muscle pains. In cases when the syndrome becomes severe it is associated with hemorrhage & increased vascular permeability (dengue hemorrhagic fever, DHF or dengue shock syndrome, DSS)
DENTAL PULP Each tooth, is made up of an outer layer of enamel, dentin below that, & the pulp at the center of the tooth. In some sense, the pulp is the LIVING portion of the tooth
DEPLETED URANIUM material left after 235U is separated to enrich uranium for use in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons
DERMAGENETICS The study of how genetic variations affect the appearance of skin
DERMATOMYOSITIS rare, chronic autoimmune disorder which afflicts approximately 5,000 - 20,000 patients in the U.S. In patients with dermatomyositis, the immune system generally attacks the patient's muscle, and also the skin, which may cause extensive rash and progressive and severe muscle weakness, pain, and fatigue. It is generally believed to be an autoimmune disease involving a number of immune responses, including activation of complement proteins by antibodies
DESCRIPTOR (PHARMA.) collections of molecular properties or physical structures--that can be used to describe complex molecules in just a few "dimensions."
DIABETES TYPE I Pathology characterized by NO Insulin prodn. by Pancreas Beta Islet Cells affecting CHILDS
DIABETES TYPE II Pathology characterized by LOW Insulin prodn. by Pancreas Beta Islet Cells generally affecting ADULTS
DIAMONDOIDS Hydrocarbon molecules in which the carbon framework has the structure of a diamond lattice
DIELECTRICS (electronics) are used to insulate computer chips' aluminum or copper circuit lines from one another. The industry traditionally used silicon dioxide, but SiO2 isn't a good enough insulator to prevent "cross talk" between the closely spaced copper wires of the latest generation of semiconductors.

For chips with 180-nm circuitry, the industry found a stopgap measure in fluorinated silicate glass (FSG), a dielectric made by infusing silicon dioxide with silicon tetrafluoride. FSG has a k value of 3.7, better than SiO2's 4.2 but not as good as the sub-3.0 level that the industry was targeting for the 130-nm devices.

DIELS ALDERASE Enzyme that catalyze are concerted Diels-Alder reactions and not some other reactions that lead to Diels-Alder-type products.
DIESEL FUEL The internal combustion engine almost started out green. Back in 1900, when Rudolph Diesel unveiled his invention at the World Exhibition in Paris, his fuel of choice was peanut oil.


ALTERNATIVE Biodiesel expert von Wedel drives a purely biofueled vehicle.
PHOTO BY ELIZABETH WILSON
The diesel engine, as it soon became known, is now the ubiquitous workhorse for heavy-duty tasks such as running farm equipment, trucks, or barges. But although Diesel originally designed the engine to run on vegetable oil, problems with the liquid's high viscosity quickly became apparent as the engines gummed up, sputtered, and died. A cheap and plentiful mixture of thousands of hydrocarbons obtained during crude oil refining worked much better, and with help from the budding petroleum industry, "diesel fuel" soon supplanted vegetable oil.

DIETETIC FOODS are synthetic foods specifically formulated for people on restricted diets. Such foods, which can contain natural foods as ingredients, can take the form of either enteral compositions or parenteral compositions
DIFFUSE SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS a form of scleroderma, is a chronic, life-threatening disorder caused by the production of excess collagen which leads to scarring of the skin and internal organs. Eighty percent of those affected by this disease are women between the ages of 25-55. About 40 percent of all patients with this disorder die within ten years of diagnosis
DIGITAL COMPUTING data technology that uses discrete (discontinuous) values
DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Ink Jet Printing (non-AgX)
DIODE electronic device that restricts current flow chiefly to one direction
DIPHOSPHO (2,3) GLYCERATE A compd. that is present at high concn. in the red blood cell & that binds to tetrameric hemoglobin to form a 1:1 complex. One molecule of 2,3-DPG binds in the central cavity of the hemoglobin molecule & greatly reduces the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen; the binding favors the dissociation of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin. The compd. serves as an allosteric effector & regulates the oxygen-binding affinity of hemoglobin in relation to the partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs
DIRECT IMAGING is the process of sending a digital file directly to a digital offset press. This process eliminates the production steps associated with film-based platemaking. DI presses allow printers to be more competitive in a market that continually demands faster turnaround time and shorter press runs at lower costsówithout sacrificing quality. DI is an enabling process brought about by the interaction of three core technologiesólaser imaging, thermal digital media, and a unique press design
DIRECT TENSION INDICATOR This test is to ensure that the bolt will be at or above the specified minimum bolt tension after installation when the direct tension indicator has been compressed to the specified maximum gap and that the bolt will not have excessive plastic deformation when the direct tension indicator is compressed to the specified minimum gap.
DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION Process by which novel genes are generated for commercial use.
DISINFECTION elimination of all life forms capable of causing disease.
DIURETICS Agent which increases urine excretion
DIVERSITY ORIENTED SYNTHESIS (CombiChem) Researchers today are showing "how one might consider combining natural product synthesis with combichem." "In the past, combichem has largely focused on simple tried-and-true synthetic sequences, whereas the natural product route tends to be infinitely more complicated and creative. Combichem is now growing into those more complex realms"--an approach called diversity-oriented synthesis.
DNA BINDING PROTEIN See Transcription Factor
DNA BULGES loops of extra bases (shown) that protrude from the DNA double helix
DNA SHUFFLING TECHNIQUE The technique involved taking gene fragments from different bacterial species and combining them to form a large variety of carotenoid genes, which were then expressed in bacterial host cells.
DOLOMITE MgCO3.CaCO3
DOMINO PROCESS (Organic Synthesis) In domino processes, bond-forming transformations take place under the same reaction conditions, and subsequent transformations are the consequence of the functionality formed in the previous one
DOPE-GA (See Abbrev.) also known as N-Glutaryl-PE, 18:1, is a phospholipid composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine conjugated to glutaric acid via an amide bond
DOTMP TetraPhosphonate Chelant
DOWN SYNDROME See Mongolism
DPDP N,N'-bis-(pyridoxal-5-phosphate)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid or N,N'-bis(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-phosphonomethyl-4-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediam ine-N,N'-diacetic acid, is referred to hereinafter as DPDP
DROSOPHILA A genus of small flies which are extensively used as test animals to study genetics, cell biology, and developmental biology. The most well-known species used is Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly.
DRUG RESISTANT HYPERTENSION hypertension that remains above goal blood pressure in spite of concurrent use of three antihypertensive agents belonging to different antihypertensive drug classes.
DRY CLEANING Use of Non-Water Solvent to lift dirt & stains off fabrics
DRYWALL a wide flat board used to cover walls or partitions; made from plaster or wood pulp or other materials and used primarily to form the interior walls of houses
DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY results from a large deletion of the dystrophin gene on the X-chromosome. Dystrophin is a muscle-specific protein that is localized on the plasma membrane of all muscle cells and is responsible for maintaining cellular integrity during muscle contractions. (Hoffman, et al. Cell, Vol. 51, pgs. 919-928 (1987); Koenig, et al., Cell, Vol. 53, pgs. 219-228 (1988); Watkins, et al., Nature, Vol. 333, pgs. 863-866 (1988)).

DUMPING To export goods at price lower than sale price in exporting country (country of origin)
DUPUYTREN S CONTRACTURE Dupuytren's contracture is a condition that involves contracture of joints in the hand that impairs patients' ability to straighten and move their fingers due to a thickening and shortening of the normal ligaments of the palm and fingers. As the disease progresses, functionality of the hand is severely impaired. The incidence of Dupuytren's contracture is highest in Caucasians, historically those of Northern European descent. Most cases of Dupuytren's contracture occur in patients older than 50 years.(1)

DWARFISM In plant miniaturization, the characteristic that reduces the plant height or the culm length compared to the wild type (the normal type) is called dwarfism
DYNAMIC RESOLUTION Coupling of racemization with resolution
DYNAMIC VULCANIZATION the process of intimate melt mixing a thermoplastic polymer and a suitable reactive rubbery polymer to generate a thermoplastic elastomer with a chemically crosslinked rubbery phase, resulting in properties closer to those of a thermoset rubber when compared to the same uncrosslinked composition.
DYSGEUSIA a condition characterized by the persistent perception of a bitter aftertaste
DYSKINESIA Difficulty or distortion in performing voluntary movements, as in tic, chorea, spasm, or myoclonus. The term dyskinesia may be used in relation to Parkinson's disease and other extrapyramidal disorders. Dyskinesia can occur as a side effect of certain medications such as L-dopa and the antipsychotics
DYSLIPIDEMIA high levels of triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoproteins in the blood, leading to buildup of plaque in blood vessel walls
DYSLIPIDEMIA elevation of LDL-C and/or triglycerides or a low HDL-C level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis, the number one cause of death among men and women and the primary reason for loss of quality of life in Western countries.
DYSMENORRHOEA A condition marked by painful menstruation
DYSPHORIA Feeling of Depression & Dejection
DYSPNEA breathlessness