CACHEXIA The malnutrition & wasting of bodily tissue that is produced by chronic diseases, such as the drain on host nutrients produced by the proliferation of cancer cells
CAFFEOYL-CoA-3-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE. The enzyme caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, called CCoAMT below, catalyses the methylation of caffeoyl-CoA in a biosynthesis route, which has only recently been described, which leads from trans-4-coumaroyl-CoA to trans-feruloyl-CoA (Matern, U., and Kneusel, R. E. 1988, Phytoparasitica 16:153-170; Kneusel, R. E., Matern, U., and Nicolay, K. 1989, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 269:455 to 462; and Pakusch, A. -E., Kneusel, R. E., and Matern, U., 1989, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 271:488 to 494).

Under fungal attack, plants reinforce their cell wall very rapidly by incorporation of cinnamic acids, followed by cross-linking thereof to give polymeric structures or build-up of lignin. Under these conditions, feruloyl-CoA is the preferred acyl donor both for the esterification of cell wall polysaccharides and for lignification (reduction to coniferyl alcohol). The speed and extent of the change in the cell wall essentially determine the course of the infection and the fate of the plants, "hypersensitive reaction" characterising complete resistance of the plants, associated with a particularly severe and rapid change in the cell wall and the death of the cells directly affected. This hypersensitive reaction is also observed in the resistance reaction of plants to virus infections. It has only recently been discovered that feruloyl-CoA is not formed in vivo in all cases by activation of ferulic acid, but is also formed by reaction of coumaroyl-CoA. The caffeoyl-CoA-specific methyl-transferase which participates in this reaction has scarcely any homology with previously known enzymes (Pakusch, A. -E., Matern, U., and Schiltz, E., 1991, Plant Physiol. 95:137 to 143), is taxonomically widespread in plants and can be induced therein by, for example, fungal attack.

CALPAIN Calcium-Activated Neutral Proteases
CANCER CACHEXIA Cancer Induced Muscle Loss
CAPNOGRAPHY monitoring of the concentration of exhaled carbon dioxide in order to assess the physiologic status of patients with acute respiratory problems or who are receiving mechanical ventilation and to determine the adequacy of ventilation in anesthetized patients.

Capnography is an indirect monitor of carbon dioxide concentrations in a patient s blood. During anaesthesia, there is interplay between two components: the patient and the anaesthesia administration device which is usually a circuit and a ventilator. The critical connection between the two components is either an endotracheal tube or a mask, and CO2 is typically monitored at this junction. Capnography directly reflects the elimination of CO2 by the lungs to the anaesthesia device. Indirectly
CAPSID The protein coat or shell of a virus particle
CARBAMOYLASE Enzyme that converts carbamoylaminoacids into aminoacids
CARBON DIOXIDE SINK Entities that remove excess CO2 from the atmosphere, such as new fast-growing forest plantations or cropping practices that incorporate carbon into the soil
CARBON NANOTUBE First discovered in 1991, nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes & have diam of only a few nm & lengths (presently: 01.01) of up to a mm
CARBON REFINERY This would be a large facility that could use coal, natural gas, biomass, or petroleum to produce a variety of fuels and chemicals as well as export electricity--and it would capture the CO2 it emits and place it in geologic formations or on the ocean floor, he said. Over time, as hydrogen-consuming fuel cells begin to be used on a large scale, a greater portion of the carbon refinery products would be hydrogen
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide and carbonic acid.
CARCINOID CANCER or carcinoids, originate in hormone-producing cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the respiratory tract, the hepatobiliary (liver) system and the reproductive glands. The most common site of origin is the GI tract, with tumors often developing in the rectum, and other sections of the small intestine
CARDANOL CNSL is a by-product of processing cashew nuts in places like Brazil, India, and Vietnam, as well as in Africa. The liquid is mostly anacardic acid, which is used as an antiseptic. When heated, it undergoes decarboxylation to yield cardanol.

It is cardanol—a phenol with an unsaturated carbon chain attached—that is of interest to chemists. "You can use the unsaturation of the C15 side chain to do chemistry like you do on linseed or soybean oils, or you can do traditional phenolic chemistry,"
CARDIAC ABLATION Using an energy source such as radio frequency or laser energy to destroy a small area of the heart and prevent further arrhythmias
CARDIAC PERFUSION IMAGING studies are used for the detection and characterization of coronary artery disease by identifying areas of insufficient blood flow in the heart. During these tests, the heart is subjected to a period of stress to stimulate maximal blood flow. Myocardical perfusion is measured during stress and compared to perfusion at rest. Areas of relatively poor perfusion during stress as compared to rest indicate which areas of the heart may be affected by narrowed coronary arteries.
CARDIAC PERFUSION SCINTIGRAPHY Cardiac perfusion imaging studies are used for the detection and characterization of coronary artery disease by identifying areas of insufficient blood flow in the heart. During these tests, the heart is subjected to a period of stress to stimulate maximal blood flow. Myocardical perfusion is measured during stress and compared to perfusion at rest. Areas of relatively poor perfusion during stress as compared to rest indicate which areas of the heart may be affected by narrowed coronary arteries.
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE a disease of the heart (cardio) and blood vessels (vascular) often caused by a narrowing of the blood vessels, which is often due to accumulation of plaque in the lining of the blood vessels. CVD is the leading cause of disability and death in the United States, resulting in more premature deaths than any other illness.
CAROTID ARTERY DISEASE develops when the carotid arteries located in the front of the neck become blocked or narrow. These two arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the part of the brain that controls movement, speech and sensation.

If the cells in this area of the brain are depleted of oxygen, they die, which results in permanent damage or stroke.

How do the Carotid Arteries Become Blocked?

When plaque, made up of scar tissue, cholesterol and other fatty substances, begins to build up on the inside of the artery walls, this is called atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries". Not only does this buildup narrow the artery passages and slow the flow of blood to the brain, pieces of plaque and/or blood clots sometimes break away from the artery walls and become lodged in the brain's smaller arteries.

This atherosclerotic process significantly increases the likelihood of stroke.


Most people with carotid artery disease (CAD) have no symptoms. Symptoms typically present themselves in the form of a transient ischemic attacks or mini strokes as they are called. During a transient ischemic attack (TIA), a person may experience temporary blindness, weakness in an arm or leg, dizziness, tingling sensations on the surface of the skin or numbness. These mini attacks (TIAs) rarely last more than 30 minutes, but people who have them are twice as likely as those who don't to have full-blown strokes.

Risk Factors

The risk factors for CAD are the same as those for coronary artery disease. These include smoking, diets high in fat, sedentary lifestyles, and a strong family history of heart disease or stroke.

CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY a surgical procedure designed to clean out material occluding an artery) done on the carotid artery (a major artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) to restore normal blood flow through it to the brain and prevent a stroke.
CARTILAGE. JOINT CARTILAGE Cartilage is a slippery and resilient tissue produced and maintained by its own specialized cells. It cushions the surfaces where two or more bones form a flexible joint. When you do even the simplest exercises or everyday activities there is tremendous pressure on your joints. Cartilage, joint fluid, and underlying bone work together like a shock absorber allowing flexible joint function.

Because cartilage lacks a direct blood supply, nutrients must pass into the cartilage from surrounding tissue. These nutrients sustain cartilage cells and provide the components necessary to maintain a healthy cartilage structure.

Scientists are not sure about all the factors that cause cartilage breakdown; however, they have discovered enzymes that play a role in the process. With age, injury, or over-activity, this process of breakdown can exceed the process of replacement leading to problems in the joints. These problems result in less flexibility.
CASCADE (CombiChem) Series of reactions that occur spontaneously
CATABOLISM 1. The phase of intermediary metabolism that encompasses the degrada
tive & energy-yielding reactions whereby nutrients are metabolized
2. The cellular breakdown of complex substances & macromolecules to
low MW compds
CATHARTIC Very strong laxative that produces explosive, watery bowel movements
CATIONIC ELECTRODEPOSITION method for applying organic coatings from an aqueous medium onto conductive substrates. In automobile manufacturing, the metal body of the vehicle serves as a cathode that attracts a layer of metal ions when immersed in a coatings solution. The metal ions create an adherent, corrosion-resistant interface between the vehicle body and the polymeric binder of the coating.

Lead has been the metal of choice as a corrosion inhibitor in the past because of its superior ability.
CAVITATION (Solvents) Process of bubble formation & implosion
CELIAC DISEASE is a chronic intestinal disorder caused by a specific intolerance to gluten present in wheat and rye proteins leading to changes in the small intestinal mucosa and impaired absorption. Current treatment is effected by a well balanced gluten-gliadin free diet high in calories and proteins and normal in fat. This excludes cereal grains with the exception of rice and corn. Those patients with celiac disease who do not respond to the glutengliaden free diet are given glucocorticoid steroids such as hydrocortisone, prednisone or prednisolone
CELL CYCLE The sequence of events between cell divisions. The cycle is conventionally divided into G0, G1, S, G2 and M phases
CELLULAR IMMUNITY Immunity that is due to cell-bound antibodies, in contrast to humoral immunity
Cellular immunity involves immune responses against invading microorga
nisms, including fungi, parasites, intracellular viruses, cancer cells, & foreign tissues. It is responsible for such reactions as allograft rejection & delayed-
type hypersensitivity & is associated with T lymphocytes
CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSE An immune response based on the activation of antigen-specific T cells. The cellular immune response includes activation and expansion of cytotoxic T cells that are responsible for killing infected and cancerous cells, activation and expansion of helper T cells, and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines.
CELLULAR SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION the series of events leading from extracellular events to intracellular sequelae
CELLULASE Enzyme converting cellulose into glucose
CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER OCCLUSION Patients with cancer and other serious diseases often receive a central venous catheter to deliver vital therapies including chemotherapy, nutritional support, pain management, antibiotics and blood products, and to withdraw blood samples for testing. An estimated five million central venous catheters are placed in patients each year in the United States,1 and approximately 25%, or 1.25 million, become occluded by blood clots.2 Known as CO, this obstruction in a central venous catheter can impair the ability to infuse fluid through or withdraw fluid from the catheter. Because central venous catheters are primarily inserted in patients receiving life-saving medications, it is critical to restore patency (flow) in a timely manner with minimal risk to the patient.
CEREBRAL ANEURYSM Cerebral aneurysms occur when there is abnormal pressure on sections of brain arteries, causing a balloon-like out-pouching of the arterial wall. As the aneurysm expands, the wall becomes thinner and the possibility of a rupture increases. If the aneurysm ruptures, this causes hemorrhaging that can lead to severe disability, coma or death. Cerebral aneurysms are present in 3% of the population, but remain asymptomatic until the day they rupture and cause a cerebral hemorrhage. Increasingly, advances in imaging technology allow doctors to detect the presence of aneurysms before they rupture, increasing the appeal of less invasive and safer preventative endovascular treatments
CEREBRAL PALSY collective name given to a range of conditions caused by brain injury caused at or around the time of birth, or in the first year of an infant's life. The brain injury may be caused, for example, by trauma during delivery. It may also arise through such causes as trauma due to road traffic accidents or meningitis during the first year of life. It has been found that there is an increased risk of cerebral palsy in prematurely born babies and, as a result of the improvements in technology which enable premature babies to be kept alive from a much earlier age, the incidence of cerebral palsy in many countries is actually increasing rather than falling.
CERVICAL CANCER cancer of the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina).
CHANNEL PROTEIN A protein that mediates passive transport across a biol. membrane by forming an aq. channel through which solutes of appropriate size & charge can diffuse
CHAPERONE (Protein) class of proteins in gram-negative bacteria that are involved in the assembly of pili by mediating such assembly, but are not incorporated into the structure
CHECKPOINT Internal surveillance mechanism that stops the cell cycle when there is a problem (e.g. DNA damage).
CHEESE Is a concentrated dairy food made from milk. A starter culture of bacteria is first added to convert some lactose - the primary milk sugar - to lactic acid. An enzyme, commonly chymosin, is next added to coagulate casein, the major milk protein - into a soft solid, or curd, that consists of Ca caseinate & milkfat.
The remaining liquid - the whey, which contains soluble proteins & lactose - is next removed to leave the fresh cheese. The curd is then stirred & heated, salt is added or the curd may be treated with brine, & the cheese is pressed into molds
CHEMICAL GENETICS Other terms used interchangeably with chemical genetics include chemical genomics, chemogenomics & chemical biology.
Chemical genetics, as most commonly defined, involves the use of small molecules to perturb, understand & control the cellular & physiological function of proteins. Just as geneticists use mutations to perturb cellular function, researchers can use small molecules to activate or inactivate gene products. Small molecules are used, in effect, as switches
CHEMICAL GENOMICS or chemogenomics, involves screening chemical compounds against genes or gene products, such as proteins or other targets. Through this functional analysis, researchers hope to elicit gene response, tease out drug candidates, and identify and validate therapeutic targets
CHEMICAL RESCUE procedure in which a small molecule boosts the bioactivity of an impaired protein
CHEMOBODY "Chemobody" refers to a chemically synthesized antibody-like molecule. Chemobodies are synthetic molecules that display multiple peptide subunits that can bind simultaneously to complementary structures
CHEMOBRAIN (OR CHEMOFOG) - Oncology>ChemoTherapy>Memory Loss & Atten
tion Problems
- Web-Site

CHEMOKINESIS The random migration of cells, brought about by a specific substance (CHEMOKINE), in the absence of a concn. gradient
CHEMOMETRICS Chemometrics is the field of extracting information from multivariate chemical data using tools of statistics and mathematics.
CHEMOTAXIS A taxis in which the stimulus is a chemical compd & cells or organisms move along a concn gradient. Such directed migration is believed to play a role in the localization of immune effector cells at inflammation sites, the movement of phagocytic cells toward various attractants, & the secretion of lysosomal enzymes
CHEMRAWN (See Abbreviation) Program of IUPAC. Designed to support scienti
sts who have skills & expertise to address pressing world problems, the program sponsors conferences on specific topics to prioritize needs from a chemical perspective with the aim of disseminating that informa
tion as broadly as possible
CHENODEOXYCHOLIC ACID A bile acid that has 2 -OH groups & that is the major comp. of the bile of hens, geese, & other fowl; it occurs in small amounts in the bile of other animals & humans
CHIMERIC hybrid produced by combining components from different sources
CHIRAL POOL approach in which the optical activity is derived primarily from carbohydrates. In this method for obtaining optically pure substances, a fragment containing the desired chiral center(s) and functionality is carved from an existing naturally occurring chemical feedstock. This resource of naturally occurring chiral feedstock is called the chiral pool.
CHITIN Poly(N-Acetylglucosamine)
CHITOSAN Poly(Glucosamine)
aggressive cancer that grows in the ducts that carry bile from the liver to
the small intestine.
CHOLECYSTOKININ A protein hormone, secreted by the duodenum, that stimulates the secretion of digestive enzymes by the pancreas & that stimulates the contraction of the gall bladder
CHOLELITHIASIS A disease, characterized by the formation of concretions (calculi) in the biliary tract that consist chiefly of cholesterol
CHOLERA An acute infectious disease of the small intestine, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, muscle cramps, severe dehydration, and depletion of electrolytes. Also called Asiatic cholera
CHOLESTERYL ESTER TRANSFER PROTEIN CETP is a plasma glycoprotein that mediates the transfer of neutral lipids among various plasma lipoproteins.1,2 CETP facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins such as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with a balanced exchange of triglyceride (TG). CETP plays a potential pro-atherogenic role by moving CE from HDL into pro-atherogenic VLDL and LDL particles, thereby lowering atheroprotective HDL-cholesterol (HDLc).
CHOLIC ACID The most abundant bile acid in human bile; it has 3 -OH groups
CHOLINERGIC Of, or pertaining to, nerve fibers that release acetylcholine at the nerve endings
CHONDROITIN polymer composed of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine sulfate and glucuronic acid. Both compounds are found in and around the cells of the cartilage in people's joints.
CHROMOSOME A structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that consists of one or more large double-helical DNA molecules that are associated with RNA & histones; the DNA of the chromosome contains the genes & functions in the storage & in the transformation of the genetic information of the organism
CHROMOSOME BREAK A break in the structure of a chromosome as that produced by some carcinogenic alkylating agents
CHRONIC COUGH Chronic cough is defined as a cough that lasts for more than three weeks. More than 90 percent of cases of chronic cough result from five common causes: smoking, postnasal drip, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux and chronic bronchitis. Although in most patients chronic cough has a single cause, in up to one fourth of patients, multiple disorders contribute to the cough. A stepwise evaluation in patients with chronic cough can minimize the invasiveness and expense of the work-up. Initial screening of patients with chronic cough should search for smoking, occupational exposure to an airway irritant, cough-inducing medications, airway hyperresponsiveness following upper respiratory infection, chronic bronchitis or any systemic symptoms suspicious for serious disease. Patients who are not diagnosed after an initial screening are evaluated or empirically treated in a stepwise fashion for postnasal drip, asthma and reflux. Bronchoscopy is reserved for use in the few patients still without a diagnosis after the previous steps have been completed
CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE is a life-threatening congenital disorder that causes patients, mainly children, to be vulnerable to severe, recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. This results in frequent and prolonged hospitalizations and commonly results in death.
CHRONIC NONBACTERIAL PROSTATITIS is the inflammation of the prostate not due to bacterial infection. It refers to a condition affecting patients who present symptoms of prostatitis without a positive result after urine culture or expressed prostate secretion (EPS) culture.

Nonbacterial prostatitis is typically a chronic, painful disease. The symptoms characteristically go away and then come back without warning. The urine and fluid from the prostate show no evidence of a known infecting organism, but the semen and other fluids from the prostate contain cells that the body usually produces to fight infection.

Treatment with antibiotics and drugs that relax the muscles of the prostate gland is often tried and commonly fails. It is the least understood type of prostatitis and hardest to treat. This form of prostatitis is the most common. It is believed to occur eight times more often than bacterial prostatitis. It occurs in association with other diseases such as Reiter syndrome (arthritis, conjunctivitis [eye inflammation] and inflammation of the genital and urinary systems).

CHUMASH Chumash ou Humash (do hebraico חומש vindo do termo chamesh (masc.)/ chamisha (fem.), cinco, alusão ao cinco livros de Moisés) é um dos nomes dado ao Tanakh dentro do judaísmo. Geralmente é usado em relação aos "livros" da Torá enquanto os rolos são chamados Sefer Torá.

Cintilografia Miocárdica com esforço e repouso É um teste ergométrico que inclui a utilização de um marcador radioisotópico no momento em que se atinge o máximo do esforço. Depois do exercício, o paciente deita-se em uma maca e são tiradas fotografias com uma câmara especial que vê como o marcador se distribuiu no músculo do coração. Se uma área do coração não recebe a quantidade normal de sangue, haverá um defeito na imagem produzida, porque o nesse caso o marcador não chegou a essa área. As imagens feitas após o exercício são comparadas às realizadas em repouso. O fluxo sanguíneo que é normal durante o repouso, mas anormal durante o exercício (um defeito de perfusão) é uma indicação de que o coração não está recebendo sangue suficiente.

CLASSIC AMD (Ophthalmology) CNV caused by wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) appears as two types of lesions: classic or occult. These terms are used to describe different patterns of CNV leakage as seen on fluorescein angiography. Classic CNV progresses more rapidly than occult, is more aggressive and easier to diagnose because the vessels are well defined and therefore easier to detect. As well, loss of sight occurs more rapidly with classic CNV
CLAUS PROCESS The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide. First invented over 100 years ago, the Claus process has become the industry standard. The multi-step process recovers sulfur from the organic sulfur compounds in crude oil. The final step involves oxidation of hydrogen sulfide
CLIMACTERIUM Climacteric symptoms
CLONE BY CLONE SEQUENCING in which a genome is first mapped to produce an overall view of its composition and then segments of it are sequenced systematically, piece by piece.
CLOUD COMPUTING Is A Form Of Computing Literally Speaking

- KeyBoard
- Monitor &
- BroadBand Connection To Internet.

One Passes To Depend On "SERVICES" Paid Per
Use Time & Provided By:

- Data Centers Offered By Big Firms Amazon
Google, IBM Etc.
The Data Centers Perform The Functions Of
"Computer/CPU/HardWare" Of The Past.
- Specialized Companies Offering "SoftWares"
For Getting Data "On & Off" The Data Cen

Big Advantage Of Cloud Computing Is "Econo
my". Big Corp. Do Not Need Anymore Immobili
ze Capital To Acq. "Hardware InfraStructure"

DisAdvantage Is That Sensitive Information
Is "Less Secure". Potential Transgressors
Do Not Need Anymore The "Computer Itself";
All They Need Is A "Password".
CLOUD POINT PRESSURE Pressure at which a single phase liquid solu
tion starts to phase separate into polymer-
rich/spin liquid-rich two-phase liquid/li
quid dispersion.
COAGULANT (Water Treat.) neutralize charge on particles so they can stick together.

is one of the more common forms of premature ageing and is characterized, amongst others, by growth failure, mental retardation, eye abnormalities and a reduced life expectancy
CODON [n] a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
CODON. TERMINATION CODON The codons UAA, UAG and UGA, which signal the end of a polypeptide chain.
COENZYME Q10 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-decaprenyl-1,4-benzoquinone. redox component in the respiratory chain and is found in all cells having mitochondria.
COGENERATION [CHP (See Abbreviation)] Is the coproduction of electricity & process heat - for chemical companies, that heat usually means creating & using steam. Cogene
ration is the primary efficiency that has allowed the chemical industry to nearly halve its energy use per unit of output since 1974
COLOSTRUM Mammal's first milk after the birth of an offspring.

Milky fluid secreted for the first day or two after parturition
COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY technology for synthesizing and characterizing collections of compounds and screening them for useful properties
COMPENSATORY HYPERINSULINEMIA When target cells are unresponsive to insulin, the pancreas responds by pouring even more insulin into the bloodstream, leading to high levels of the hormone in the blood, a condition called compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The high level of insulin in the blood forces glucose into cells but also starts the events leading to arterial damage and eventually a heart attack. Under these conditions, a person may not manifest either diabetes or heart disease but could well be on the way to either or both.
COMPLEMENT (IMMUNE SYSTEM). Complement forms part of the body's natural immune system, the activation of which plays a key role in the normal inflammatory response. Complement is activated when there is an injury or cellular attack in the body. For example, if a bacterium or virus enters the body, complement is activated by antibodies that recognize the invader and fight off the invading organism. Likewise, if a foreign substance enters the body, which could range from a wood splinter to a medical catheter or even a transplanted organ, it is the complement system that is intimately involved in protecting the body by mounting an inflammatory response
COMPLEX FLUIDS Complex fluids, which are distinguished from simple fluids by the presence of suspended microstructures of various shapes and sizes.
COMPRESSION SET The amount of deformation (expressed as a percentage of original dimensions) which a material retains after compressive stress is released.
COMPUTER VISION use of digital processing
and intelligent algorithms
to interpret meaning from
images or video
CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATA A viral skin disease characterized by a soft wart-like growth on the genitals. In adults, the disorder is considered a sexually-transmitted disease, but in children the virus appears to be transmitted with or without sexual contact
CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE Connective tissue diseases are inflammatory multisystem diseases characterised by evidence of autoimmunity (e.g. antibodies to cellular components) in which there are often prominent signs of involvement of the joints and other parts of the locomotor system. e.g. SLE
CONTACT ADHESIVE A liquid adhesive which dries to a film that is tack-free to other materials but not to itself. The adhesive is applied to both surfaces to be joined and dried at least partially. When pressed together at light to moderate pressure, a bond of high initial strength results. Some definitions of contact adhesive stipulate that the surfaces to be joined shall be no further apart than about 0.1 mm for satisfactory bonding.
CONTRAST AGENT a substance that improves visualization of images produced by medical diagnostic equipment such as ultrasound, x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or nuclear medicine; an imaging-sensitive substance that is ingested, injected intravenously, or injected via catheter to enhance or increase contrast between anatomical structures.
CONTRAST INDUCED NEPHROPATHY (CIN) is a form of Acute Renal Failure caused by exposure to contrast media during image-guided cardiology and radiology procedures. The lack of effective treatment to prevent CIN remains problematic for patients with renal-insufficiency.
COPROPHAGY (InDoor>Cockroach>Control) feeding on feces
CORN STOVER Stalks & Leaves
CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY X-ray examination of blood vessels
CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY process of using a catheter with a balloon at its tip to open or widen a narrowed blood vessel

invasive cardiologic therapeutic procedure to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary arteries of the heart. ...
CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE a condition that affects the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow to the heart, resulting in a narrowing or blockage of the arteries.
COSMECEUTICAL Functional personal care prepn that are more than cosmetic cover-ups for superficial shortcomings but are not quite the stuff of health-restorative pharmaceuticals - have caught the public's imagination & captured a share of its pocketbook. Some require a doctor's prescription & supervision for use because the FDA considers them to be drugs
COUETTE REACTOR PRINCIPLE In which one cylinder (a rotor) turns inside a second cylinder (a stator)
CR MIMETICS drugs designed to mimic the effects of caloric restriction (Aging Prevn.)
CROHN S DISEASE a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology but, unlike ulcerative colitis, it can affect any part of the bowel. Although lesions may start superficially, the inflammatory process extends through the bowel wall to the draining lymph nodes. As with ulcerative colitis, the course of the disease may be continuous or relapsing, mild or severe but, unlike ulcerative colitis it is not curable by resection of the involved segment of bowel. Most patients with Crohn's disease come to surgery at some time, but subsequent relapse is common and continuous medical treatment is usual
CROWD SOURCING starts with decentralization, by sourcing tasks traditionally performed by specific individuals to a group of people or community (crowd) through an open call.
CT SCAN an x-ray study of the body in which radiographic images of cross-sections of specific body parts are obtained
CURD Coagulated casein consisting of Ca caseinate & milkfat; formed in cheese mfg
CURRENT IMPACT INDEX (CII) Patent indicator of technological impact is how frequently a patent is CITED by later patents. When a patent is heavily cited by later patents, this is a sign that the cited patent represents an important technological advance
CUSHING'S DISEASE A disease characterized by an overproduction of adrencorticotropin & caused by either overactivity or a tumor of the adrenal cortex
CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE Cell enzyme involved in cell cycle (cell division, cell replication)
CYSTIC FIBROSIS Genetic Disease with Bronchial Fluid Accumulation, resulting in Higher Susceptibility to Infections
CYSTINOSIS People born without the ability to metabolize the amino acid cystine suffer from cystinosis, a rare inherited disorder characterized by the deposition and accumulation of cystine crystals throughout the body. These crystals cause considerable damage, particularly in the kidney
CYSTITIS While many factors contribute to the acquisition and progression of E. coli urinary tract infections, it is widely accepted that colonization of the urinary epithelium is a prerequisite to infection. In a typical course of E. coli urinary tract infection, bacteria originate from the bowel, ascend into the bladder, and adhere to the bladder mucosa where they multiply and establish an infection (cystitis) before ascending into the ureters and kidneys
CYTOCHROME P450 One of a class of enzymes that are heme proteins in which the Fe of the heme is linked to the S of an SH group of cysteine in the protein chain. They form CO complexes that have a major absorption band at 450 nm. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissues, plants, & microorganisms, & catalyze the monooxygenation of a vast variety of hydrophobic substances; they play an important role in the detoxification of drugs, mutagens, & carcinogens
CYTOKINE Group of substances formed by a animal in response to infection. They are similar to hormones in their function; they are produced in one cell & stimulate a response in another cell. They are BRM & include such substances as IFN, IL & TNF
CYTOLOGY The branch of biology that deals with the origin, the structure, the function & the history of cells
CYTOSKELETON Part of cell responsible for its shape
CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCITES (CTL) Specialized T cells that can recognize and kill infected and cancerous cells, through direct lysis and/or release of cytokines