|B||TITLE: CHEMICAL DEPENDENCE & MUCH MORE.
In Deciding To Write This Book, My Intention
Was To Tell My Personal Story To The World On
How I Got Into The "TITLE" Situation. The Reader After Finishing Reading This Book Will
Fully Understand Of Why Of The "TITLE".
The Book Is Divided Into 5 Chapters:
1. Education Phase.
2. German Phase.
3. Dark Phase.
4. Illuminated Phase.
5. Key To Success.
1. Education Phase.
I Was Born In Buenos Aires, Argentina In
1944 From German-Jewish Parents. My Late Fa-
ther Had A Strong Influence On Myself During
During High-School, I Loved To Study Almost
By Excess, For Instance By Own's Will I
Stayed At Home Saturday Night Reading Books
When My Friends Went Out Dancing.
It Came The Moment When I Had To Decide What
University Career To Follow. I Had Some In-
clination For Chemistry; The Late Prof.
Schreiber Told My Father That I Was A Genius
, Chemistry Was The Subject Where I Was Ge-
tting The Highest Notes. To Be Able To Make
A Final Decision I Did A Professional Orien-
tation Test As It Was Customary At That Time
& Of Course Chemistry Was The Result.
I Studied Chemistry At The University Of Bue
nos Aires Receiving The Degree Of "Licencia
do En Quimica" (Equivalent To Masters Degree
At That Time I Had Already The "DREAM" Of
Doing Research & Perhaps Become A Professor;
But That Dream I Would Fully Realize During
The Present "ILLUMINATED" Phase (See Chapter
3), As My Father & Relatives Would Ask Me
From What Will You Live As A Researcher &/or
I Started Working With The Late Prof. Venan
cio Deulofeu In Organic Chemistry>Structure
Of Natural Products With The Goal Of Earning
The Doctoral Degree. This Effort After One
Year Led To Nothing Due To Lack Of Empathy
Between Myself & Adviser. Deulofeu Was
The Chief Of Organic Chemistry Dept.; & Ta-
king In Consideration The Authoritarian Na-
ture Of Human Relations In Argentina At That Time It Was Senseless For Me To Select Ano-
ther Adviser In Hierarchy Below Deulofeu; So I Was So To Speak "Burned". With The Advice
Backing & Incentive Of My Father I Left At
Age 24 For USA>New York. My Older Sister Alicia Isaacson Was Living In USA Already For Many Years.
1.2.1. NEW YORK CITY (NY)
So In Year 1968 At Age 24 I Moved To USA>NY
Where I Was Admitted To New York University.
I Rented A Room At 111th Street Near
Amsterdam Ave.; For Which I Was Paying US$
200,00 Per Month. I Must Say My First General
Impression Of The City Was Highly Positive.
As I Said Before My Older Sister Already Was
Living In USA For Many Many Years; So I Was
Not A Total Stranger Without Family &/or
Relatives In A New Country; This Of Course
Was Very Important.
The Human Environment At NYU Was Highly
Positive; I Had Many Friends Mostly From In
dia, One Name I Remember Was Vasanth Prabhu.
It Came The Moment Where I Had To Choose My
Ph.D. Thesis Adviser. I Had A Talk With
Prof. Manfred Low (Surface Gas Chemistry);
What Guided Me To Talk With Prof. Low Was
That He Had Many People (Mostly Post-Docto
rals) Working With Him & For His Rel. Young
Age Had Many Many Research Articles Publi
Prof. Low Told Me Openly You Work For Me For
A Couple Of Months Say 3-4 Months; & If For
Some Reason i.e. You Do Not Like The Type
Of Research There Is No Problem You Change
Adviser. What A Contrast With Argentina!!
I Began Truly Admiring The USA & "The Ameri
can Way Of Life". As A Matter Of Fact After
3 Months I Changed Adviser. My Ph.D. Thesis
Adviser During The Next 5 Years Would Be
Prof. David I. Schuster.
My Ph.D. Thesis Was In Organic PhotoChemis
try Specifically The Experimental Proof That
"Benzene" Was NOT An Inert Solvent For Photo
Chemical Reactions. Several Published Resea
rch Articles Resulted From My Work. I Must
Say That During Those 5 Years On Several
Occasions I Wanted To Give Up But I Continued
Till The End Thanks To The Always Strong &
Inspiring Backing Of Prof. Schuster. During
The First 3-4 Years Very Few Concrete Results
Came Out; But Then Practically During The 5th
Year Everything Fell In Place. So I Learned
Something: NEVER Give Up.
In One Month I Wrote The Thesis. I Was Very
Nervous & Excited The Day I Had To Give The
Oral Presentation Before Prof. Schuster &
Other Professors; In The End Everything Went
Fine My Thesis Was Approved & I Earned The
Ph.D. In Chemistry Degree In 1973. At The End
Of Presentation I Had A Fall & Broke My Arm!!
1.2.2. SALT LAKE CITY (UTAH)
I Did PostDoctoral Research With The Late Prof. Cheves Walling At The University Of Utah On Work Related To Fe(II/Fe(III) Redox
Inorganic Chemistry; From Which Resulted
Several Published Articles.
I Lived In Downtown Salt Lake City & I Remem
ber Almost Every Sunday I Assisted To The
Concerts At The Great Mormon Cathedral As I
Am Very Fond Of Classic Music.
2. German Phase.
After 6 Years Living In The USA; I Felt A
Sort Of Admiration &/or "Love" For The USA;
My Wish At The Time Was To Get A Job & Stay
For Good In The USA. I Entered The USA With "Student Visa" & It Was Difficult To Change
My Status. I Said To Myself Let Try My Luck
In Canada; Almost Immediately I Obtained The
"Permanent Residence Status" In Canada But
I Did Not Have A Job. Then I Received A Phone
Call From Prof. Schuster In NY Suggesting To
Me To Present The Results Of A Research Work
At A PhotoChemistry Congress In The Nether
lands, There I Was Travelling To Europe To
Do This Presentation Which Was A Success. At
The Congress I Met Executives From Hoechst AG
(Today Clariant); Who Offered Me A One-Year
Contract Job At Frankfurt/Hoechst (10 Miles
From Frankfurt/Main) & I Accepted. Legally
There Was No Problem As Thanks To My Late Fa
ther I Had The German Passport (Today Euro
I Rented An Apartment At The Blumen Strasse;
5 Minutes From Downtown Frankfurt/Main & I
Started Working In 1974.
As A Jew I Had Perhaps Some PreConcept Thin
king For Myself After All What Happened The
Holocaust Etc. Etc., Here I Am In Germany
Working For A German Co.!!!; But I Must Rea
lize That After 30 Years Of End Of World War
II A Lot Had Changed For The Better In Ger-
many. An Example: At Hoechst AG My Immediate
Superior Was A German More Or Less My Age
From A Small Town Near München Of Name Dr.
Werner Müller. When I Met Him For The First
Time Of Course I Talked With Him In German;
For My Surprise & As He Of Course Knew That
I Came From USA; He Tells Me Let's Talk In
English; Telling Me That He Worked From Some
Years At Monsanto In Pensacola & That His
Wife & Son Were Americans; Many Years Later
I Found Out That He Moved For Good To USA.
We Were A Team Of 3; Dr. Müller; Myself &
A 3rd Chemist Whose Name I Don't Remember.
My Work Was On A Pilot Plant Study Of A New
Process For Making Resorcinol From Aliphatic
Starting Materials. At The End Of One-Year
Period, Several German Patents Were Issued
With My Name As CoInventor.
I Travelled A Lot During Weekends & Holidays
Remembering My Visits To Paris & London.
For Some Reason (Perhaps Having To Do With
Some Sort Of PreConcept On My Part As A Jew)
I Did Not Want To Establish Myself In Germa
ny For Good.
Coinciding With The End Of 1-Year Job Con
tract With Hoechst; I Suffered A Strong Kid
ney Stone Attack. Following Medical Recommen
dations I Went Through A Quasi-Surgical Treat
ment (In Hospital). The Treatment Lasted 1-2
Hours Plus 3-4 Days Of Convalescence & Solved
My Kidney Problem (Since That Date Till This
Moment >30 Years Later I Never Had Kidney
Stone-Caused Pain). I Was Authorized To Lea
ve The Hospital Only After Almost 30 Days
(Physicians Wanted To Be Sure That I Was
100% OK). The Attention At That Hospital Was
Excellent; It Was More Like A VIP 5 Star Ho
To My Surprise After A Week Or So; My Room's
Door Opens & Who Was There Visiting Me? My
After I Left The Hospital & Before Returning
To Argentina; I & My Father Made A 2-Week
Tourism Visit To Israel. I Do Not Remember
Very Much About This My 1st Visit To Israel.
3. Dark Phase.
Back In Argentina I Worked For 2-3 Months At
A Local Patent Attorney's Office. This Was
The 1st Time I Got In Contact With PATENTS;
But I Do Not Remember Very Much Of This Very
Short Period Of Time.
My Father Worked For Many Years At S.A. Alba
As Sales Manager (Although He Was Formed As
Doctor In Economy In Pre-Nazi Germany). A
Paint Co. Owned At That Time By Bunge & Born
Group (Bunge & Born At That Time Had Head
Quarters In Buenos Aires, Argentina; Later
On Moved To Sao Paulo, Brazil & Today Known
As Bunge Ltd. Is Based In USA; The Group Ori
ginated > 100 Years Ago In Belgium).
Through My Father's Corporate Relationships;
I Got A Job At SA Alba's Sister Paint Co.
"Tintas Coral SA" In Sao Paulo, Brazil Where
I Started Working in 1976 At Age 32 As A
Chemist In Their Synthetic Resin's Dept.
I Worked At Tintas Coral SA 17 Years From
1976 Till 1993.
Why I Call This A "Dark" Period Of My Life?
Here Some Of The Answers!!
- My Intellectual & R&D Potential Was Tota
lly UnderUtilized. As A Matter Of Fact In
The Dept. Where I Worked & In All Other
Chemistry-Linked Departments Of The Co.
There Was Almost NO R&D Activity Done.
Most Low-Level Innovations Came From SA
Alba In B.Aires & High-Level Innovations
Were Licensed From USA Companies (Ex.:
Valspar Corp.) or European Companies.
- With My Immediate Superior I Had A Good
Relationship Although He Was A Chemist
With Only A Masters Degree At Most...
- During All That Time I Felt Internally "Un
Happy" & Totally "UnRealized" From A Pro
fessional Point Of View.
In Spite Of All Above; I Did Not Have The
"Courage" To Quit Due To A Type Of Psycholo
gical Accomodation & My Monthly Salary Was
Technically The Most Important Project I Re-
member Was The Use Of PET (Poly Ethylene
Terephthalate) Waste In The Production Of
Long-Oil Alkyd Resins.
4. Illuminated Phase.
Tintas Coral's Library Had A Subscription To
The "CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS"'s Polymer Section
So During My Free Time, I Went To The Libra-
ry & Browsed Through Chemical Abstracts, Pho
tocopied The Pages Of Interest, Marked & Se
parated The Abstracts Of Interest & Glued
Them On A Blank Sheet Of Paper & After One
Year I Bound All Those Sheets Of Paper In The
Form Of A "Book". The Purpose Of Said Book Was To Have An Orderly Record For Myself Of All Abstracted Informations & Of Course No-
thing To Do With Publishing.
My "CHEMICAL DEPENDENCE" (Thirst For UpDati- ng Myself Of All Chemical Informations Of Interest) Was In The Process Of Being Born.
After My Exit From Tintas Coral In 1993, I
Continued With This Practice ("Hobby"). Once
A Week I Went To The Library Of The Instituto
De Quimica At The Universidade De Sao Paulo
(USP) & Browsed Through All Of Chemical Abs-
tracts (Not Just The Polymer Section) & All
Chemistry Journals, Did The PhotoCopying Etc.
Etc. I Had Already 3-4 Very Thick Books. At
This Point In Time My Knowledge Of Computer
Was = Zero & Never Heard About The Word "In
ternet" (To My Knowledge The Internet For Co-
mmercial Purposes Started By The Years 1988-
By Around The Year 1995; I Created My Own
& Since Approximately The Year 1998; I Have
Been Monitoring; Analyzing & Digitally Recor
ding Technology Informations. As A Consequen
ce Of That Systematic Work I Have Developed
A Series Of New "Non-Obvious" Concepts.
In 02.2008 I Wrote My "1st Book" [Short (30 Pages)] EnTitled:
"Corporate - Patent - TradeMark Information
In Which I Made A Detailed Description Of
Said New "Non-Obvious" Concepts. My Intention
Was To Publish It; But An IP Lawyer I Consul
ted Advised Me To Prior To Publishing, To Patent Said Technology. My Financial Condition Did Not Allow Me Register One or >
Than One Patents; So Said 1st Book Remained
UnPublished & As A "Trade Secret" Till Pre-
Initially My Focus Was Restricted To "Chemi-
cal" Related Technology Informations,
Certainly Due To My Professional Education.
Later On & At Present Point In Time My Know-
ledge-"Dependence" Extended To "MUCH MORE",
Extended To All Fields Of Human Activity.
Hence The Reader Can Now Understand Why I
Titled The Book "Chemical Dependence & Much
I "Love" The Work I Am Doing, As A Matter Of
Fact I Should Not Call "Work" Something I Do
With Love & Passion. I Spend Practically All
My Time Systematically Browsing The Internet
For Informations, Analyzing Them & Recording
Them In My Web-Site Following The Rules Des-
cribed In My 1st Book.
I Feel Internally Happy & From A Professio-
nal Point Of View Fully Realized. Finally
That "Dream" That I Had In The Earlier Days
(Age 25 Or So, See Page ) Came Fully
True. Today I Spend Most Of My Time Doing
"Research". I Feel Myself As A Permanent "Stu
dent". As A Matter Of Fact The Process Of
Studying Fortunately "Never Ends".
Every Day I Learn Something New. It Really
Makes Me Feel Good.
What About The Search Engine Google? I Make
This Self-Question & To Be Self-Answered Be-
cause During My 2nd Visit To Israel In 2007,
Somebody Made The Remark That My Site Ressem-
bled Google!! My Site Is A Totally DIFFERENT
Product Than Google. As Regards To Google I
Want To Make The Following Observation:
"Upon A Request; Google Presents Lists
Of Pages In Which The Desired Informa
tion Should Be Contained. They Indicate
A Path - WITHOUT GIVING DIRECTLY AN
ANSWER. Genuine Answers Require Some
By The Way This 2nd Visit To Israel I Made
With My Wife Simy. There Are Simply "No Words
" To Describe What I Felt & Still Feel For
Israel. In Spite Of Having Been Born & Lived
In SouthAmerica, I Do Have Strong Feelings
For 3 Non-LatinAmerican Countries. For Is-
rael I Do Have Admiration & A Special Cul-
tural & "Sentimental" Link. For Germany & USA I Do Have Admiration & A Special Cultural
But At The End Of The Day I Really Feel As A
"Citizen Of The World".
5. Key To Success.
Execute The Following Ten (10) Steps:
5.1. Find Out What Activity You "LIKE" To
Spend Most Of Your LifeTime In. This Is
The Most Important Step & Certainly The
Most Difficult One.
Do NOT Guide Yourself Just By "Financial
5.2. Start & End A "Formal" Study Linked To
Activity Selected In (5.1.) & Earn A De-
gree. This Is The Least Important Step.
Majority Of Cases This Is A Necessary
But NOT Sufficient Condition For Success
I Must Admit That There Are Cases (Mino
rity %) Where Success Comes "WITHOUT
5.3. Study Because You Are "INTERESTED"
In Learning What You Are Studying & NOT
Obliged By A Time Deadline To Obtain
Good Notes & Pass Exams.
5.4. The Process Of Studying Is "Permanent &
It Just Started With 5.2.
5.5. Be "PERSISTENT" & Never Give Up.
5.6. "Think Globally" Be A Citizen Of The
World; Independently Of The Place Where
You Circumstantially Were Born Or Live.
5.7. Decisions: You May Hear Other's Advices
& Opinions Etc. Etc. But At The End Of
The Day Decisions Will Be Yours & You
Will Be The "Only One" Responsible For
5.8. At One Point In Time You Will Start Wor-
king. Your Job/Work Presumably Will Be
Linked To Activity Selected In 5.1.;
Which You Like. So Try To Envision Your
Job/Work As "Entertainment; Good Time;
Happiness; Helping Other People; Hobby;
Way Of Spending Your Time; Having Fun"
& NEVER As An Obligation & Means Of Ear-
ning A Living.
5.9. You Will Arrive To The So-Called "3rd.
Age". Never Stop Working. Never Retire.
5.10. Success In The Form Of Financial Or
Other Form Of Rewards Will Come As A
Natural Consequence Of All Above With
Tomas M. Weil
Sao Paulo, Brazil, October 2009.
|BACE1 (See Abbrev.) (AD)||See Beta Secretase|
|BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS||What is Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)?
BV is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age.20 Although the exact cause of BV is not known, BV occurs when the natural balance of organisms in the vagina changes, allowing for potentially harmful bacteria to grow. BV may be associated with serious health problems including pelvic inflammatory disease, post-surgical infections and abnormal Pap smears. That is why it's important to treat BV as effectively as possible.
|BACTERIOPHAGE||A virus that infects bacteria & multiplies in them. Aka bacterial virus; phage|
|BALZ SCHIEMANN REACTION||Regiospecific introduction of fluorine into aromatic compds via diazonium salts|
|BARRETT'S ESOPHAGUS||Precancerous Condition caused by Acid Reflux Stress-Triggered & which may lead to Esophageal Cancer|
|BARTON MCCOMBIE DEOXYGENATION||Alcohol is converted to a xanthate ester
(-O-CS-SR), enabling replacement of the -OH with a H atom via a radical process with OrganoTin Hydride as H Source
|BASIC OXYGEN STEELMAKING||http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_oxygen_steelmaking|
|BATTEN DISEASE||inherited neurological degenerative disorder|
|BECHTEREW S DISEASE||Arthritis and osteitis deformans involving the spinal column; marked by nodular deposits at the edges of the intervertebral disks with ossification of the ligaments and bony ankylosis of the intervertebral articulations, it results in a rounded kyphosis with rigidity.|
|BECKER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY||is the result of one or more point mutations in the same gene. (Hoffman, et al., N. Engl. J. Med., Vol. 318, pgs. 1363-1368 (1988)).|
|BERGMAN CYCLOAROMATIZATION REACTION||Enediyne cyclization forming benzene via highly reactive 1,4-benzenoid diradical intermediate|
|BESYLIC ACID||BenzeneSulfonic Acid (Ph-SO3H)|
|BETA SECRETASE (AD)||Also known as beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme or BACE1 - initiates APP proteolysis. Much like a miniature shaver, BACE1 lops off part of the APP molecule on the outside of the membrane|
|BH4 DEFICIENCY||BH4 deficiency is a very rare inborn error of metabolism, and is estimated to account for 1-2 % of cases of HPA. BH4 deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic condition and can result from deficiencies of any of the five different enzymes involved in BH4 synthesis and regeneration. BH4 is a necessary co-factor for PAH. Therefore, BH4 deficiency impairs PAH activity leading to a biochemical situation similar to PKU, with HPA resulting from deficient conversion of Phe to tyrosine. In addition, since BH4 is also a necessary co-factor for both tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase, BH4 deficiency causes deficiencies in the downstream neurotransmitter products of these amino acids including catecholamines and serotonin. Dietary limitation of whole protein or Phe intake is often not necessary with BH4 treatment. However, since BH4 does not cross the blood brain barrier, concomitant therapy with neurotransmitter precursors, i. e. levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan, may be necessary to boost central nervous system substrate levels for catecholamine and serotonin synthesis, respectively|
|BIFUNCTIONAL CHELANT (Medicine)||a molecule that has, in addition to chelating functionality, the ability to be conjugated (linked) to a biotargeting molecule (e.g. monoclonal antibody).|
|BIGINELLI REACTION||An Aldehyde, a 1,3-KetoEster, & a Urea or ThioUrea React in One Pot to form PolyFuncti
onalized DIHYDROPYRIMIDINES, many of which are bioactive
|BILE||The secretion of the liver that aids in the digestion of fats by emulsifying them & that serves to excrete bile pigments, heavy metals & other waste prodts of metabolism|
|BILE ACID||A 24-C steroid that occurs in the bile in the formn of bile salt. Cholic acid & cheno
deoxycholic acid are sometimes referred to as primary bile acids; they may be hydroxylated by bacteria in the digestive tract to yield the sec. bile acids, deoxy
cholic acid & lithocholic acid resp.
lactone component of ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761.
|BIODIESEL||Fatty Acid Alkyl (Et or Me) Ester|
|BIOEQUIVALENCE (Pharma.)||is the Food & Drug Administration requirement that the active ingredient of a generic drug be absorbed into the body and metabolized in approximately the same amount over approximately the same period as the active ingredient of the innovator drug. Bio-equivalence is demonstrated in two ways. Dissolution testing determines if the generic drug product dissolves in approximately the same amount of time as the innovator product. Blood-level testing is done by giving the generic drug product to humans and measuring how much of the drug enters the bloodstream, how fast it does so, and how long it takes to leave the body.
|BIOFOULING||The spontaneous & unwanted adsorption of proteins, cells & bacteria on surfaces|
|BIOGAS||Biomass derived gas mainly composed of CO & H2 (fuel)|
|BIOINFORMATICS||Expression used to designate all informatic tools to SYSTEMATIZE & transform in USEFUL information the vast amount of data & knowledge in LIFE SCIENCES|
|BIOLOGICAL FORCE MICROSCOPY||live cells are attached to a small bead at the end of an atomic force microscope tip. The technique allows force measurements at sub-nanonewton resolution|
|BIOMARKER||Valid biomarker. A biomarker that is measured in an analytical test system with well-established performance characteristics and for which there is an established framework or body of evidence that elucidates the physiological, toxicological, pharmacological or clinical significance of the test results. (This definition does not fully describe the situation in drug development, in which data are often rapidly evolving and where some data might be proprietary and in single hands.)
Known valid biomarker. A biomarker that is measured in an analytical test system with well-established performance characteristics, and for which there is widespread agreement in the medical or scientific community about the physiological, toxicological, pharmacological or clinical significance of the results.
Probable valid biomarker. A biomarker that is measured in an analytical test system with well-established performance characteristics, and for which there is a scientific framework or body of evidence that seems to elucidate the physiological, toxicological, pharmacological or clinical significance of the test results
|BIOMIMETICS||takes engineering principles from the natural world and applies them to man-made materials and technologies.
|BIPOLAR MANIA (Mental Disorder)||While everyone experiences changes in mood as part of everyday life, people who suffer from bipolar disorder have mood swings that may be so severe that they interfere with the ability to function normally at work, at school, and in relationships with family and friends. Some people may experience only a few mood swings, separated by long periods of normal mood, while others may have rapid and severe mood swings that occur frequently.
During the manic phase of the disorder, people may experience feelings of euphoria, extreme optimism, and inflated self-esteem. Other common symptoms include rapid speech, racing thoughts, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and increased energy or activity. During manic episodes, people may do things that they later feel were mistakes—such as going on spending sprees, taking unnecessary risks, or rushing into big decisions.
During the depressive phase of the illness, people may have feelings of sadness, anxiety, guilt, or hopelessness. It is common to experience changes in eating and sleeping patterns or to lose interest in activities that one normally enjoys. Some people may even find themselves thinking about suicide. It is possible to experience symptoms of both the manic phase (irritable, argumentative) and depressive phase (hopeless and sad) at the same time. This is known as mixed mania.
Although most people with manic-depressive disorder spend considerable periods of time in a relatively normal mood, some individuals switch quickly between mania and depression—a less common condition known as rapid cycling. In addition, some people may experience some psychotic symptoms, such as paranoia or the belief that they have special powers.
Bipolar disorder is a persistent or chronic (long-lasting) medical condition, just as diabetes and high blood pressure are. Bipolar disorder is not the result of a character flaw or something the person did, and having it is not a sign of personal weakness or a lack of willpower.
Scientists do not know exactly what causes bipolar disorder, but they believe that the symptoms may be activated by a chemical imbalance in the brain. We do know that bipolar disorder can affect anyone, regardless of race, sex, education, occupation, or income. The disorder can appear at any age, although it frequently occurs for the first time in early adulthood. Bipolar disorder can run in families, but genetics does not completely explain who gets it and who does not.
|BLAST CELL||A cell with a poorly differentiated, but RNA-rich cytoplasm that actively synthesizes DNA|
|BLOCK COPOLYMER||Is made from > 2 monomers with all monomers of each type grouped together. A diblock copolymer, for example could have the structure AAAABBBB. Usually the blocks have incompatible solubility characteristics, which lead to materials having interesting physical & chemical properties|
|BLOOD CLOT||the conversion of blood from a liquid form to a solid form through the process of coagulation|
|BLOOD PLASMA||source of numerous proteins used for drug development and therapeutic purposes. These proteins include albumin, clotting factors, and intravenous immunoglobulin|
|BLOOD VESSEL||any tube in the body through which blood flows; an artery, vein, or capillary|
|BNCT||Is a two-part therapy in which patients are first given a nontoxic compd. contg (10)Boron that will be picked up selectively by cancer cells or other targeted cells. Then the target is irradiated with a beam of neutrons, which pass harmlessly through most tissue. When the neutrons encounter the (10)B nuclei, however, they are absorbed (or captured), causing a fission reaction that creates two high-energy cations, (4)He 2+ (alpha particle) & (7)Li 3+.
Energy released by fission of the (10)B nucleus propels these high-energy particles outward, but only for a distance of about one cell diam. As they move, they severely damage whatever they encounter. About a billion (10)B nuclei, uniformly distributed within a cell, provide a sufficient number of targets to damage the cell severely enough to be sure of killing it
|BONE METASTASIS||Non-Bone Primary Tumor Metastasized to Bone|
|BORATABENZENE||Benzene where ono or more "CH" groups are substituted by boron|
|BORIRENE||CycloPropene; where -CH2- is replaced by -BH-
|BOUDOUARD REACTION||2CO in presence of Fe = Fe carbide + CO2|
|BRACHYTHERAPY||A procedure in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called internal radiation, implant radiation, or interstitial radiation therapy|
|BRANDED GENERICS. (Pharma.)||See SUPERGENERICS|
|BrC16-PACLITAXEL||Paclitaxel attached to a 16 carbon-long, straight, saturated, alpha-carbon bromylated acyl chain|
|BROADBAND||In general, broadband refers to telecommunication in which a wide band of frequencies is available to transmit information. Because a wide band of frequencies is available, information can be multiplexed and sent on many different frequencies or channels within the band concurrently, allowing more information to be transmitted in a given amount of time (much as more lanes on a highway allow more cars to travel on it at the same time). Related terms are wideband (a synonym),|
|BRONCHIECTASIS||lung disease that results in the distortion of one or more of the conducting bronchi or airways, most often secondary to an infectious process.|
|BRONCHOSCOPY||procedure in which a thin, lighted tube is inserted through the nose or mouth. This allows examination of the inside of the trachea and bronchi|
|BRONCHOSPASM||the sudden tightening of the airways usually caused by an allergen or asthma trigger|
|BRONSTED-EVANS-POLANYI RULE||Chemists studying reaction kinetics commonly invoke a simplifying assumption, which states that, for a given chemical reaction, the activation energy and reaction energy are related linearly. The Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi rule provides a direct way to relate changes in activation energy to changes in bonding characteristics, such as bond strength|
|BROWNFIELD||Abandoned industrial site|
|BUCHWALD HARTWIG COUPLING REACTION||- Ar Halide+Amine = Ar Amine
- Ar Halide+Phenol = Ar Ether
Catalyst: Pd/Ligand System (Homogeneous Cata
|BURULI ULCER||Skin Disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans which secretes Mycolactone Toxin; occurring in Africa & Australia|