A

AA AMYLOIDOSIS AA Amyloidosis is a fatal condition for which there is no effective therapy. This condition is a consequence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, and chronic infections such as osteomyelitis and tuberculosis. The hereditary condition known as Familial Mediterranean Fever can also lead to AA Amyloidosis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported to represent the majority - approximately 50 % - of the thousands of patients suffering from AA Amyloidosis. With the impact of shifting demographics to an aging population in the next decade, the number of people with chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis will dramatically increase.

Because the amyloid fibrils in AA Amyloidosis mostly deposit in the liver, spleen and kidneys, the most common clinical presentation of this lethal disorder is kidney failure. Gastrointestinal complications are also frequent and are usually manifested as chronic diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding, abdominal pain and malabsorption. Enlargement of the liver and the spleen may also occur in some patients.

AA Amyloidosis has a poor prognosis with five to 15-year survival rates of 50 % and 25 %, respectively. End-stage renal failure is the cause of death in 40 % to 60 % of cases
ABACA (Manila hemp). The strongest vegetable fiber, obtained from leaves of the tree of the banana family. The fibers are 4-8 ft long, light in wt., soft lustrous, nearly white & so not swell or loose strength when wet. Denier ranges from 300 to 500.
ABBREVIATED NEW DRUG APPLICATION is the process of obtaining approval to market a generic drug. An ANDA contains information demonstrating that the generic drug is bioequivalent to the brand-name product and certification that the generic drug does not infringe on any patent for the brand-name product listed in the Orange Book or certification that the listed patents are invalid
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM A ballooning or widening of the main artery (the aorta) as it courses down through the abdomen. At the point of the aneurysm, the aneurysm usually measures 3 cm or more in diameter. The aneurysm weakens the wall of the aorta and can end in the aorta rupturing with catastrophic consequences. As the diameter of the aorta increases, the chances of an abdominal aortic aneurysm rupturing rise. A measurement of 5 cm is often used to recommend surgery. Persons with AAA tend to be 60 or over. Men are 5 times more likely than women to have an AAA.
ABE FERMENTATION The microbial fermentation of carbohydrates to acetone, butanol & ethanol
ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA Genetically inherited metabolic defect in humans that is characterized by the absence of low d. lipoproteins
ABHERENT Any substance that prevents adhesion of material to itself or to another material
ABIOGENESIS 1. The formation of a substance other than by a living organism
2. The doctrine that living organisms can come from nonliving matter; spon
taneous generation
ABIOSIS Absence of life
ABLATION - Biochemical:
The breakup & wearing of a solid surface by impact with particles or radia
tion; the etching of the surface of a biol. tissue by exposure to UV lasers
- Chemical:
The rapid removal of heat (5000 to 10,000F) from metal substrate by pyroly
sis of a material of low thermal conductivity, which is able to absorb or dissi
pate heat while being decomposed to gases & porous char. Ablative mate
rials applied to the exterior of T-sensitive structures isolate them from hyper
thermal effects of the environment. Interaction of a high-energy environment
with the exposed ablative material results in a small amount of sacrificial
erosion of surface material. The attendant energy-absorption processes
control the surface T & greatly restrict the flow of heat into the substrate.
Ablative materials are usually composed of ceramic or glass reinforced
plastic
ABLATIVE PHOTODECOMPOSITION (APD) photochemical process that occurs when organic material absorbs ultraviolet (193-nm) laser radiation above a threshold power per unit area. The laser radiation breaks chemical bonds and vaporizes material without heating or charring surrounding material. It allows precision cutting or etching of material, including human tissue.
ABM Paper Amino Benzyloxy Methylcellulose Paper, used in the study of nucleic acids. When this paper is chemically activated, it binds single-stranded nucleic acid covalently
ABORTIVE INFECTION A viral infection that either does not lead to the formation of viral particles or leads to the formation of noninfectious viral particles
ABORTIVE INITIATION An initiation of transcription that is terminated after only a few nucleotides have been polymerized.
ABORTIVE TRANSDUCTION Bacterial transduction in which the DNA from the donor cell is introduced into the recipient cell, but fails to become integrated into the chromosome of the recipient bacterium
ABRASIVE A finely divided, hard, refractory material ranging from 6 to 10 on the Mohs scale, used to reduce, smooth, clean or polish the surfaces of other less hard substances, such as glass, plastic, stone, wood etc. Natural abrasive materials include diamond dust, garnet, sand (silica), corundum (Al oxide, emery), pumice, rouge (Fe oxide), & feldspar; the more important synthetic types are SiC, B carbide, Ce oxide & fused alumina. Abrasives in powder form are used in several ways:
(1) Applied directly to the surface to be treated by mechanical pressure or
compressed-air blast, as in cleaning building stone
(2) Affixed to a paper or textile backing after the particles have been coated
with an adhesive
(3) Mixed with a bonding agent such as Na silicate or clay, the particles
being compressed into a wheel rotated by a power-driven shaft
ABSOLUTE PLATING EFFICIENCY The percentage of cells that give rise to colonies when a given number of cells are plated on a nutrient medium
ABSOLUTE CONFIGURATION The actual spatial arrangement of the atoms about the asymmetrical C atoms in a molecule
ABSOLUTE DEFECTIVE MUTANT A cell or an organism that exhibits its mutant phenotypic behavior under all conditions
ABSORBED ANTISERUM An antiserum from which Ab have been removed by the addition of soluble antigens
ABSORBENT A substance that absorbs another substance
ABSORBER A material used to absorb radioactive radiation
ABSORPTIVE LIPEMIA The transient increase in the concn. of lipids in the blood that follows the ingestion of fat
ACANTHAMOEBA KERATITIS Acanthamoeba keratitis is an infection of the transparent outer covering of the eye, or the cornea, caused by a microscopic, free-living amoeba. Acanthamoeba is commonly found in water, soil and air. AK infection is uncommon in healthy individuals, but contact lens wearers who improperly store or disinfect their lenses or who wear lenses while showering or swimming are at higher risk of developing an infection. Current treatment regimens can last a year or more and include a combination of prescription eye medications. Severe vision impairment or loss of the eye may occur, even if the condition is diagnosed early and managed appropriately
ACANTHOCYTE A cell that has numerous projecting spines or "thorns"
ACANTHOCYTOSIS (1) A condition characterized by blood that contains spherical erythrocytes
that have numerous projecting spines
(2) ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA
ACANTHOSOME A membranous vesicle that appears in fibroblasts, isolated from the skin of hairless mice that have been subjected to chronic UV irradiation
ACARICIDE A type of pesticide effective on mites & ticks (acarides)
ACATALASEMIA See ACATALASIA
ACATALASIA A genetically inherited metabolic defect in humans that is due to a deficiency of the enzyme catalase
ACC SYNTHASE (tomato plant) ACC synthase is the rate limiting enzyme that converts s-adenosylmethionine to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the immediate precursor to ethylene
ACCELERATION (Biochemistry) A stage in carcinogenesis in which, according to the Busch theory, an accelerator protein is synthesized which functions in accelerating the production of cancer RNA from cancer DNA
ACCELERATOR GLOBULIN See Proaccelerin
ACCELERIN The activated form of proaccelerin that converts prothrombin to thrombin during blood clotting
ACCESSORY PIGMENT A photosynthetic pigment such as a carotenoid or phycobilin, that functions in conjunction with primary photosynthetic pigment
ACCESSORY FACTOR A protein in blood clotting that, when activated proteolytically, serves to enhance the rate of proteolytic activation of some other blood clotting factor
ACCUMULATION THEORY A theory of aging according to which aging is due to the accumulation of either a deleterious or toxic substance
ACELLULAR Not composed of cells
ACETATE HYPOTHESIS The hypothesis that a multitude of complex substances may be formed naturally as a result of modification of the linear chains formed by repeated head-to-tail condensation of acetic acid residues; typical modification are cyclization, oxidation & alkylation
ACETATE REPLACING FACTOR Lipoic Acid
ACETATE THIOKINASE A fatty acid thiokinase that catalyzes the activation of fatty acids having 2 or 3 C atoms to fatty acyl coenzyme A
ACETIFICATION The spoilage of beverages, such as wine & beer, due to aerobic oxidation of EtOH to AcOH by microorganisms
ACETOGENIN One of a large number of compds that are formally equivalent to head-to-tail condensation prodts of AcOH residues. Acetogenins are biosynthesized by means of a multienzyme complex via condensations of acetyl coenzyme A molecules or other deriv. of coenzyme A. Acetogenins are responsible for many of the brilliant colors that occur in nature. Major subgroups include flavonoids, tetracyclines, & macrolide antibiotics.
ACETONE POWDER A prepn of one or more proteins that is produced by removal of acetone by vacuum filtration from an acetone extract of a tissue; used in the course of isolating & purifying an enzyme or other proteins
ACETONE CYANOHYDRIN PROCESS in which the reactants are acetone and hydrogen cyanide--generally by-products from other chemical processes.
ACETONEMIA The presence of excessive amounts of acetone in blood
ACETONURIA The presence of excessive amounts of acetone in urine
ACETYL COENZYME A The acetylated form of coenzyme A; a key intermediate in the citric acid cycle, in fatty acid oxidation, in fatty acid synthesis
ACETYL NUMBER A measure of the number of -OH groups in a fat; equal to the number of milligrams of KOH required to neutralize the AcOH in 1 gram of acetylated fat
ACETYL VALUE The number of milligrams of KOH required for neutralization of AcOH obtained by the saponification of one gram of acetylated fat or oil sample. Acetylation is carried out by boiling the sample with an equal amount of acetic anhydride, washing & drying. Saponification values on the acetylated & on untreated fat are determined. From the results the acetyl value is calculated. It is a measure of the number of free hydroxyl groups in the fat or oil
ACETYL-COA CARBOXYLASE A multienzyme system that catalyzes the ATP-requiring biosynthesis of malonyl-SCoA from acetyl-SCoA & HCO3 anion. The enzyme from E. coli & plants consists of 3 comp.: (a) biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP or BCP); a protein that contains 2 identical subunits, each of which has one mole. of biotin linked covalently to the epsilon-NH2 group of a lysine residue; (b) biotin carboxylase (BC); an enzyme having 2 identical subunits; (c) transcarboxylase (TC or carboxyl transferase); a tetrameric enzyme contg 2 pairs of non-identical subunits
ACETYLATION Acylation reaction in which an MeCO- radical is introduced into organic compd
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE The enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to choline & AcOH during the transmission of a nerve impulse
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE The enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine to choline & AcOH during transmission of nerve impulse
ACETYLENE BLACK The C black resulting from incomplete combustion or thermal decompn of acetylene
ACETYLORNITHINE CYCLE A cyclic set of reactions in bacteria & plants that constitutes a major pathway for the synthesis of ornithine from glutamic acid & N-acetylornithine
ACETYLSERINE The acetylated form of serine believed to function in the initiation of translation in mammalian systems
ACETYLTRANSFERASE An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to another compd
ACHIRAL Not chiral
Achirotopic Not chirotopic
ACHLOROPHYLLOUS Lacking chlorophyll
ACHROMIC Devoid of color
ACHROMIC POINT A stage in the hydrolysis of starch at which the addition of iodine fails to produce a blue color
ACHROMOTRICHIA FACTOR p-Aminobenzoic Acid
Achromycin See Tetracyclines
ACICULAR Needle-shaped; used in describing crystals or the particles in powders
ACID HEMATIN A hematin formed from hemoglobin by treat. with acid < pH 3
ACID PLANT A plant that accumulates organic acids in its leaves; these acids form ammonium salts
ACID RAIN The environmental phenomen in which SO2 & N oxides expelled into the air by industrial combustion, react with rainwater to produce dilute soln of SO4H2 & NO3H. Acid rain leads to acidification of streams & lakes & depletion or loss of their fish life
ACID DYE An azo, triarylmethane or anthraquinone dye with acid groups such as nitro-, carboxy, or sulfonic acid. They are most frequently applied in acid soln to wool or silk, & no doubt combine with the basic groups of the proteins of those animal fibers. Orange II (C.I. 15510), black 10B & acid alizarine blue B are examples
ACID LINING Silica brick lining used in steel-making furnaces
ACID MIGRATION (Electronics) Acid migration is a problem associated with photoacid generators used in semiconductor device's positive photoresists; & it arises as an effect of existence of "time delay" between exposure to UV light & baking of the wafer to consummate the reaction between protons & protected ester groups.
Photolysis of the onium salt liberates protons within the exposed area, but said "delay" results in slow diffusion through the resin out of that area, eroding the resolution
ACID MINE DRAINAGE Water from both active & inactive coal mines which has become contaminated with SO4H2 as a result of hydrolysis of ferric sulfate, the oxidation prodt of pyrite. This is a factor in water & stream pollution, which can be corrected by use of appropriate ion-exchange resins
ACID PHOSPHATASE An enzyme found in blood serum which catalyzes the liberation of inorganic phosphate from phosphate esters. Optimum pH 5; is less active than alkaline phosphatase
ACID VALUE The number of mg of KOH neutralized by the free acids present in one gr of oil, fat, or wax. The determn. is made by titrating the sample in hot 95% EtOH using phenolphthalein as indicator
ACID-BASE BALANCE The reactions & factors involved in maintaining a constant internal environment in the body with respect to the buffer systems & the pH of the various fluid compartments
ACIDAMINURIA Aminoaciduria
ACIDEMIA Condition characterized by an increase in the H-ion concn of the blood
ACIDIMETRY The determination of the concn. of acid soln. or of the quantity of acid in a sample or mixt. This is usually done by titration with a soln. of base of known strength (standard soln.) & an indicator is used to establish the end point
ACIDOPHIL A cell that stains with an acidic dye
ACIDOSIS A deviation from the normal acid-base balance in the body that is due to a disturbance which, by itself & in the absence of compensatory mechanisms would tend to lower the pH of the blood. The actual change in pH depends on whether & to what extent the disturbance is compensated for. The Disturbances & the compensatory mechanisms are considered primarily with respect to their effect on the bicarbonate/carbonic acid ratio of blood plasma
ACIDOSOME A nonlysosomal vesicle that functions in the acidification of digestive phagocytic vacuoles in "Paramecium"
ACIDURIA A condition characterized by the excretion of an excessively acidic urine
ACL (Abbrev.) RUPTURE ACL ruptureis a common injury of the athletically active population. The ACL is a ligament with mechanical functions to stabilize the knee joint. The most common repair involves a procedure where the patientís own tissue is used to reconstruct the ACL. Another repair involves use of processed cadaver tissue to reconstruct the ACL. Synthetic material-based ligaments have been developed with limited success due to their permanence and eventual mechanical failures. ReCombinant Spider Silk Suture?
ACONITASE The Fe-contg enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of citrate & isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. The reaction proceeds via the enzyme-bound intermediate cis-aconitate (a tricarboxylic acid)
ACQUIRED ANTIBODY An Ab produced by an immune reaction as distinct from one occurring naturally
ACQUIRED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA An autoimmune disease in which individuals form antibodies to their own red blood cells
ACQUIRED IMMUNITY The immunity established in an animal organism during its lifetime
ACQUIRED TOLERANCE The immunological tolerance produced in an animal organism by the injection of antigen into it; acquired tolerance persists only as long as the antigen remains in the organism
ACROMEGALY A condition characterized by overgrowth of skeletal structures due to the excessive production of growth hormone.

Acromegaly is a serious, life-shortening disease triggered by over-secretion of growth hormone, most often caused by a pituitary tumor. This excess of growth hormone leads to overproduction of a second hormone, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-l), which contributes to the disabling symptoms and the long-term health problems associated with the disorder(1).


Patients with acromegaly often suffer from headache, excessive sweating, soft-tissue swelling, joint disorders and, perhaps most striking, a progressive coarsening of facial features and enlargement of the hands, feet and jaw(2). Patients with acromegaly face a mortality rate two to four times higher than the average person, due to such serious long-term complications as heart and respiratory disease, diabetes mellitus and some forms of cancer(3).



ACROSOME A cap-like structure, beneath the cell membrane, at the head of a spermatozoon; it serves to digest the egg coatings to permit fertilization
ACROSOME REACTION The release of the contents of an acrosome by exocytosis upon contact of a sperm with an egg
ACTH FAMILY A group of peptide hormones, including ACTH, lipotropin, & melanotropin, that are derived from a common precursor. The opioids beta-endorphin & gamma-endorphin are also derived from the same precursor which is known as preproopiomelanocortin
ACTIN A major protein comp. of the myofilaments of striated muscle & the principal constituent of the thin filaments of muscle & of the microfilaments of the cytoskeleton
ACTINIC KERATOSIS Actinic keratosis also called solar keratosis or senile keratosis is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly patches of skin. It usually reflects a degree of solar damage, and may progress to basal cell carcinoma
ACTINIDE SERIES The group of radioactive elements starting with actinium (q.v.) & ending with Element 105. All are classed as metals. Those with atomic number > 92 are called transuranic elements. The series includes the following elements: actinium, 89; thorium, 90; protoactinium, 91; uranium, 92; neptunium, 93; plutonium, 94; americium, 95; curium, 96; berkelium, 97; californium, 98; einsteinium, 99; fermium, 100; mendelevium, 101; novelium, 102; lawrencium, 103; rutherfordium, 104; & hahnium, 105.
ACTIVATED CHECKPOINT THERAPY Overview
A checkpoint is a cell's natural defense mechanism that ensures genomic integrity. Depressed checkpoint function is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the normal cell cycle, checkpoints allow cells to repair DNA damage or to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death). Cancer cells, with multiple abnormalities including genetic (DNA) damage, survive and proliferate because key checkpoints and apoptotic pathways are disabled during development of cancer. Conventional chemotherapy seeks to kill cancer cells by creating further damage to DNA. A well-known side effect of this approach is that normal cells are indiscriminately damaged, creating toxicity to patients and limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Furthermore, the depressed checkpoint pathways limit cancer cell killing activity of conventional chemotherapy. Unique approach to cancer therapy is designed to restore or reactivate checkpoint functions that are lost in cancer cells. The Company develops small molecules that activate cell cycle checkpoint functions within cancer cells, allowing them to detect and respond to DNA damage. As a result, cancer cells proceed toward apoptosis. This approach, the Activated Checkpoint Therapy platform, is a key concept in approach to drug development
ACTIVATED SLUDGE See SEWAGE SLUDGE
ACTIVATION ANALYSIS An extremely sensitive technique for identifying & measuring very small amounts of various elements. A sample is exposed to neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor, for the purpose of prodg radioisotopes from the stable elements. The characteristics of the induced radiations are sufficiently distinct that different elements in the sample can be accurately identified. The technique is particularly useful when concns. of the elements are too small to be measured by ordinary means. Trace elements have thus been determined in drugs, fertilizers, foods, fuels, glass, minerals, dusts, water, toxicants etc
ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME unstable angina and non-Q-wave MI
ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA It is a fatal disease characterized by an accumulation of abnormal white blood cells in the blood & bone marrow, resulting in anemia, infection, & hemorrhage
ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION Heart Attack.
caused when a blood clot obstructs a coronary artery supplying blood to the heart. This causes an inadequate flow of oxygenated and nutrient-enriched blood and results in the death of a portion of the heart muscle. Symptoms of a heart attack may include: uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes; pain spreading to the shoulders, neck or arms; and chest discomfort with lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea or shortness of breath. As many as 1.1 million Americans suffer heart attacks each year. Of these, about one-third will die, making heart attack the number one killer of men and women in the United States. About 650,000 of these cases are first attacks while 450,000 are recurrent attacks.
ACYCLIC DIENE METATHESIS POLYMN. n CH2=CH-(CH2)m-CH=CH2 = [=CH-(CH2)m-CH=]n+
n Ethylene
ADCS (See Abbrev.) a consortium of clinical investigators and academics chartered by the National Institute on Aging, to conduct and fund clinical trials for promising new AD therapies
ADDISON'S DISEASE Pathology resulting from Adrenal Insufficiency & characterized by general weakness, loss of appetite, GI disturbances & weight loss
ADDITION POLYMER A polymer formed by direct addition of the monomer molecules with one another. An example is the formation of polystyrene by the stepwise combination of styrene monomer
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE molecule that is the main energy carrier inside cells. Its terminal (or end) phosphate groups are highly reactive and critical to a number of important cellular processes
ADENOVIRUS A naked, icosahedral virus that contains double-stranded DNA. Adenoviruses infect mammals, often leading to respiratory infections; some are oncogenic
ADHESIN (Protein) To initiate infection bacterial pathogens must first be able to colonize an appropriate target tissue of the host. For many pathogens this tissue is located at a mucosal surface. Colonization begins with the attachment of the bacterium to receptors expressed by cells forming the lining of the mucosa. Attachment is mediated via proteins on the bacterium that bind specifically to cellular receptors. These proteins, or adhesins, are expressed either directly on the surface of the bacterium, or more typically, as components of elongated rod-like protein structures called pili, fimbriae or fibrillae
ADHESION The state in which 2 surfaces are held together by interfacial forces, which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action, or both
ADHESIVE Any substance, inorganic, organic, natural or synthetic, that is capable of bonding other substances together by surface attachment
ADIABATIC A process, condition, or operation during which there is no gain or loss of heat from the environment
ADSORBENT A substance which has the ability to condense or hold molecules of other substances on its surface
ADSORPTION INDICATOR A substance used in analytical chemistry to detect the presence of a slight excess of another substance or ion in soln as the result of a color produced by adsorption of the indicator on a ppcc present in the soln. Thus a ppcc of AgCl will turn red in a soln contg even a minute excess of Ag ion (Ag nitrate soln), if fluorescein is present. In this example fluorescein is the adsorption indicator
AERATE To impregnate or saturate a material (usually a liquid) with air, or some similar gas. This is usually achieved by bubbling the air through the liquid or by spraying the liquid into air
AEROGEL Dispersion of a gas in a solid or liquid. The reverse of an aerosol; flexible & rigid plastic foams are examples
AEROSOL A suspension of liquid or solid particles in a gas
AEROZINE 50:50 mixt. of hydrazine & uns-dimethylhydrazine; one of most used of bipropellant rocket fuels
AFFINITY MEDIA substrate used for the capture of proteins through specific binding interactions
AFLATOXIN A polynuclear substance (C17H10O6) derived from molds; a known carcinogen. Produced by a fungus occurring on many vegetables, especia
lly those with high moisture content. It is highly toxic
AGE ASSOCIATED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AAMI is a recognized syndrome relating to memory changes associated with normal aging. AAMI is a common condition in individuals over 50 years of age. In the United States, it is estimated that approximately 40% of people aged 65 and above, or 16 million, have AAMI. It is characterized by gradual memory impairment (subjective memory decline and objective memory loss) with the absence of dementia. Individuals with AAMI have been shown to have a three-fold greater risk for development of dementia than individuals who do not meet AAMI criteria.
AGGLUTINATION The combination or aggregation of particles of matter under the influence of a specific protein. The term is usually restricted to antigen-Ab reactions characterized by a clumping together of visible cells, such as bacteria or erythrocytes. The antigen is called an agglutinogen & Ab an agglutinin, because of an apparent gluing or sticking action
AGLUCONE The nonsugar-like portion of glucoside molecule
AGLUCONE The nonsugar-like portion of a glucoside molecule. See glycoside
AGLYCONE A nonsugar hydrolytic prodt of a glycoside. See glycoside
AIDS KAPOSI SARCOMA A malignant tumor of blood vessels in persons with AIDS
AIRWAY BYPASS People with emphysema have air trapped in their lungs and so cannot breathe effectively. As the disease progresses, physical activities become increasingly limited and difficult. The goal of the investigational airway bypass procedure is to create new pathways in the lungs for this trapped air to escape. By decreasing the amount of air trapped in the lungs the treatment could enable an increase in breathing muscle strength, leading to less shortness of breath, and better pulmonary function and quality of life.

ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE An enzyme found in animal & plant tissue which acts upon EtOH & other alc prodg acetaldehyde & other aldehydes
ALCOHOLYSIS Chemical reaction between an alc. & another organic compd, analogous to hydrolysis
ALDOLASE An enzyme present in muscle involved in glycogenolysis & anaerobic glycolysis. It catalyzes production of dihydroxyacetone phosphate & phosphoglyceric aldehyde from fructose 1,6-diphosphate
ALDOSE Any of a group of sugars whose mole. contains an aldehyde group & one or more alc. groups
ALGAE Chlorophyll-bearing organisms occurring in both salt & fresh water; they have no flowers or seeds, but reproduce by unicellular spores. They range in size from single cells to giant kelp over 100 ft long, & include most kinds of seaweed. There are 4 kinds of algae: brown, red, green & blue-green. Their photosynthetic activity accounts for the fact that over 2/3 of the world total of photosynthesis takes place in oceans.Algae are harvested & used as food supplements (see carrageenan & agar), soil conditioners, animal feeds, & as source of iodine; they also contain numerous minerals, vitamins, proteins, lipids, & essential aminoacids. Alginic acid is another important deriv.Blue-green algae are water contaminants & are toxic to fish & other aquatic life.P compds in detergent wastes stimulate the growth of algae to such an extent that overpopulation at the water surface prevents light from reaching many of the plants; these decompose, removing O & releasing CO2, thus making the water unsuitable for fish. Algae are being used in treat. of sewage & plant effluent in a proprietary flocculation process
ALGICIDE Chemical agent added to water to destroy algae
ALGIN A hydrophilic polysaccharide (phycocolloid or hydrocolloid) found in brown algae. It is similar to agar. The seaweed (giant kelp) is sea-harvested, water-extracted & refined
ALKALI CELLULOSE The prodt formed by steeping wood pulp with NaOH, the first step in the mfg of viscose rayon & other cellulose deriv.
ALKALOID A basic nitrogenous organic compd of vegetable origin. Usually derived from the N ring compds.: pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, pyrrole; designating by the ending -ine. Though some are liquids, they are usually colorless, crystalline solids, having a bitter taste, which combine with acids without elimination of water. They are soluble in alc., insoluble in water
ALKYD RESIN Poly(Ester) derived from polyols, polybasic acid & modified by drying triglyceride oils
ALKYLATE IS A LIQUID made up of C7 to C9 alkanes such as trimethylpentanes and dimethylhexanes
ALLELE A specific form of a gene; one of several possible mutational forms of a gene
ALLERGEN Any substance that acts in the manner of an antigen on coming into contact with body tissues by inhalation, ingestion or skin adsorption. The allergen causes a specific reagin to be formed in the bloodstream; the ability to produce reagins in response to a given allergen is an inherited characteristic that differentiates an allergic from a non-allergic person. A reagin is actually an Ab. The specificity of the allergen-reagin reaction & its dependence on molecular configuration is similar to the antigen-Ab reaction. The allergen molecule (often a protein such as pollen or wool) may be regarded as a key which precisely fits the corresponding structural shape of the reagin molecule. Allergies in the form of contact dermatitis can result from exposure to a wide range of plant prodts, some metals, & a few organic chemicals. Though they are alike in some ways, antigen-Ab reactions protect the individual, whereas allergen-reagin reactions are harmful
ALLERGIC RHINITIS Inflammation of the Mucous Membrane of the Nose
ALLOGRAFT Transplant from one individual to a genetically dissimilar individual of same species
ALLOTROPY The existence of a substance in > 2 forms, which are different in physical & chemical properties. The difference between the forms involves either (1) crystal structure; (2) the number of atoms in the molecule of a gas or (3) the molecular structure of a liquid. Carbon is a common example of (1), occurring in several crystal forms (diamond, C black, graphite). Diatomic oxygen & O3 are instances of (2) & liquid S & helium of (3). Uranium has 3 crystalline forms, Mn 4 & plutonium no less than 6. Also "Polymorphism"
ALLYL RESIN Special class of polyester resin derived from esters of allyl alc. & dibasic acids. Common monomers are allyl diglycol carbonate, also known as diethylene glycol bis(allyl carbonate), diallyl chlorendate, diallyl phthalate, diallyl isophthalate, & diallyl maleate. Polymn occurs through the unsatd allyl double bond to form thermosetting resins which are highly resistant to chemicals, moisture, abrasion & heat. They have low shrinkage & good electrical resistivity
ALOPECIA Hair Loss
ALPHA GLUCOSIDASE An enzyme which removes the last 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residue from the nonreducing end of a long chain (or polymer) of such residues, making an alpha-D-glucose molecule out of it in the process
ALPHA SYNUCLEIN Protein related to Parkinson`s disease & contained in Lewy bodies
ALUMINA. ACTIVATED A highly porous, granular form of Al oxide having preferential adsorptive capacity for moisture & odor contained in gases & some liquids. When saturated, it can be regenerated by heat (350-600F). The cycle of adsorption & reactivation can be repeated many times
AMALGAM Alloy of Hg with any of a number of metals
AMBER A polymerized fossil resin derived from an extinct variety of pine. Readily accumulates static electrical charge by friction; good electrical insulator
AMBOMYCIN An antibiotic produced by "Streptomyces ambofaciens"
AMBRETTOLIDE Omega-6-hexadecenlactone. C16H28O2. Colorless liquid, having powerful musk-like odor. Found in ambrette-seed oil. Uses: Flavoring; perfume fixative
AMIBEN Generic name for 3-amino-2,5-dichlorobenzoic acid. Herbicide or plant growth regulator
AMIDASE activity in the removal of arginine, phenylalanine or methionine from the N-terminal end of peptides in peptide or peptidomimetic synthesis.

AMINIMIDE Any of a group of N compds derived by reaction of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine with an epoxide in the presence of an ester of a carboxylic acid
AMINOTRANSFERASE. Enzyme catalyzes following reaction:

L-AminoAcid+KetoGlutaric Acid = L-Glutamic Acid+KetoAcid corresponding to L-AminoAcid.
AMPHIPHILIC DIBLOCK COPOLYMER Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic DiBlock CoPolymer
AMPHOLYTE A substance that can ionize to form either anions or cations & thus may act either as an acid or base
AMPHOTERIC Having the capacity of behaving either as an acid or base
AMYLASE Enzyme which converts starch into sugars
AMYLIN Islet amyloid polypeptide , which is tied in with diabetes.Amylin is a hormone that may moderate glucose metabolism. It is normally secreted along with insulin by pancreatic islet beta-cells. But deposits formed from fibrils of this amyloid peptide can be found in the islet cells of patients with type 2 diabetes.
AMYLOID FIBRILS Some scientific ideas face a difficult and protracted fight to be accepted. But if their creators are stubborn and persistent, these hypotheses may survive long enough to be refined and further evaluated as additional information accumulates.

One such thesis concerns the identity of the toxic agent in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and other degenerative age-related diseases. For years, most researchers have backed the notion that clumps of long amyloid fibrils located in the brain and other organs are responsible for killing neurons and other cells in patients who have these conditions.
AMYLOID OLIGOMER It has taken a while, but the hypothesis that a precursor of the insoluble amyloid fibril may be the more dangerous entity is now gaining ground. And some researchers further believe that the smaller, soluble precursor, which is often called an amyloid oligomer or protofibril, may do its damage by creating holes--pores or ion channels--in cellular membranes
AMYLOID PLAQUES One such thesis concerns the identity of the toxic agent in Alzheimer's disease. For years, most researchers have backed the notion that clumps of long amyloid fibrils located in the brain and other organs are responsible for killing neurons and other cells in patients who have Alzheimer's condition. In Alzheimer's, these clumps are termed amyloid plaques and consist primarily of the polypeptide amyloid beta protein
AMYLOPECTIN The outer, almost insoluble portion of starch granules. It is a hexosan, a polymer of glucose, & is a branched molecule of many glucose units. It stains violet with iodine & forms a paste with water
AMYLOPSIN The starch-digesting enzyme of pancreatic juice, the most powerful enzyme of the digestive tract. It is an amylase which converts starches through the soluble-starch stage to various dextrins & maltose. It acts in neutral, slightly acid & alkaline environments with an optimum pH 6.3-7.2. It requires the presence of certain negative ions for activation
ANABOLISM 1. The phase of intermediary metabolism that encompasses the biosynthe
tic & energy-requiring reactions whereby cell comp are produced
2. The cellular assimilation of macromolecules & complex substances from
low MW precursors
ANALOG COMPUTING use a continuous range of values to represent information.
ANAMMOX BACTERIA Anaerobically oxidize ammonia to dinitrogen
ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA is the medical term for male pattern baldness. This type of hair loss affects 1 out of every 4 men before the age of 30. The hair loss usually starts with a receding hairline and eventually the top of the head becomes bald
ANDROID http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_%28operating_system%29
ANEMIA A condition in which the number of red blood
cells, the volume of red blood cells, or the hemoglobin content of the blood are below normal levels
ANEMIA OF CANCER Anemia in Cancer Patients NOT undergoing
ChemoTherapy
ANEMIA OF INFLAMMATION A blood iron deficiency associated with too much hepcidin
ANEURYSM permanent, abnormal blood-filled dilatation or ballooning of a blood vessel that may be congenital or the result of disease. Aneurysms typically have thin walls vulnerable to rupture. If an aneurysm ruptures, the resulting hemorrhage that can put injurious pressure on surrounding tissue, impair downstream blood flow, and even cause death
ANGIOGENESIS The growth of new blood vasculature; that is associated with cancer but can also be induced for treat. of CV disease
ANGIOGRAM a diagnostic x-ray procedure performed to visualize blood vessels following introduction of contrast material into an artery, via a catheter.
ANGIOGRAPHY an x-ray examination of the blood vessels following the injection of contrast material; used as a diagnostic tool in conditions such as a heart attack or stroke. The x-ray that is produced is called an angiogram.
ANGIOMYOGENESIS (Cardiology) begins with a small skeletal muscle biopsy taken from the patient 2 weeks before surgery. Using a specialized technology process, these cells are multiplied and genetically treated with Co.'s proprietary gene, to increase their angiogenic potential. These cells are then implanted into the same patient in the infarcted area of the heart - an autologous graft (a graft occurring within the same body). The presence of these muscle cells greatly increases the heart's cardiac function, while the angiogenic activity allows better oxygen and nutrient supply to the grafted area, thereby increasing the beneficial effects of the implanted cells.
ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS chronic, progressive and debilitating inflammatory disease that causes painful stiffening of the spine and eventually leads to fusion of the vertebrae, often leaving the back curved and inflexible. It typically develops when patients are in their most productive years -- between the ages of 20 and 40 years old -- and is, therefore, associated with significant lost days of work and early retirement as well as hospitalization and other treatment costs.
ANOREXIA a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite. Anorexia can be caused by cancer, AIDS, a mental disorder (i.e., anorexia nervosa), or other diseases.
ANTAGOMIR Short Single Strands of Modified RNA Conjugated to Cholesterol

Antagomirs Inhibit MicroRNA

MicroRNA are involved in diseases such as
Hepatitis C; Cancer & Diabetes
ANTI-MARKOVNIKOV REACTION A nucleophilic group, such as an alcohol or amine, adds to the less substituted of the 2 double-bonded carbons in an alkene
ANTIBIOTIC INDUCED COLLITIS (DIARRHEA) Caused by a toxin of the bacteria "Clostridium difficile". Certain antibiotics in some patients wipe out many bacterial species that live in the human gut. This can pave the way for overgrowth of "C. difficile", which normally can't compete.
The C-terminal third of the toxin chain binds to oligosaccharides on human gut cell surfaces. The N-terminal third exert the toxic effect of damage to gut cells, making them unable to control fluid inflow & outflow & accumulationof deposits& blood, mucus & other fluid
ANTIBIOTICS Compound produced by a microorganism or a plant, or a close chemical derivative of such a compound, that is toxic to microorganisms from a number of other species
ANTIBODY A glycoprotein of the globulin type that is formed in an animal organism in response to the administration of an antigen & that is capable of combining specifically with that antigen
ANTICHOLINERGIC 1. Impeding the impulses of cholinergic, esp. parasympathetic, nerve fibers. 2. An agent that blocks parasympathetic nerve impulses.The side effects, which include dry mouth and blurred vision, are seen in phenothiazine and tricyclic antidepressant drug therapy. SYN: parasympatholytic
ANTIGEN A substance, frquently a protein, that can stimulate an animal organism to produce antibodies & that can combine specifically with the antibodies thus produced; called also complete antigen as distinct from a hapten
ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE compound about 20 nucleotides long that is designed to complement an mRNA segment in a specific manner. Binding of the antisense molecule to mRNA prevents translation of the mRNA into protein and thus inhibits expression of the gene from which the mRNA was transcribed.
ANTISEPSIS Substantial reduction of microbial content
AORTOILIAC OCCLUSIVE DISEASE complete or partial blocking of the lower part of the aorta as it enters the leg, at the level of the groin. The aorta is the major artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
APOPTOSIS Programmed Tissue Cell Death
APTAMERS Aptamers are chemically synthesized short strands of RNA (oligonucleotides) that adopt highly specific three-dimensional conformations. Over 10,000,000,000,000,000 different aptamers can be synthesized in a test tube using the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands of Exponential enrichment) process. SELEX is a combinatorial chemistry methodology in which vast numbers of oligonucleotides are screened rapidly for specific sequences that have appropriate binding affinities and specificities toward any target. Thus, novel molecules are created that can either mimic or prevent specific molecules from binding to their receptors much like antibody.
AQUARESIS excretion of electrolyte-free water
ARCHAEBACTERIA A class of unusual bacteria that, phylogenetically, are neither prokaryotes nor eukaryotes. They have some characteristics of prokaryotes (such as absence of nucleus & cell organelles), some characteristics of eukaryotes (such as initiation of protein synthesis with methionine & ribosome insensitivity to chloramphenicol), & some characteristics that are unique to them (such as compn of the cell wall & the types of membrane lipids). Accordingly the archaebacteria are believed to represent a third primary kingdom such that 3 lines of descent lead from a common ancestor (progenote) to archaebacteria, prokaryotes & eukaryotes, resp. Archaebacteriainclude thermoacidophiles, extreme halophiles, & methanogens & may represent some of the earliest forms of living cells
ARCUATE NUCLEUS Region of base of hypothalamus (brain) known to play a key role in obesity regulation
ARTERIOGRAPHY angiography of the arteries
ARTERY blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the organs and tissues throughout the body; walls consist of smooth muscle
ASCITES is the presence of excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity and usually develops during decompensation of chronic liver disease. Depletion of intravascular fluid volume is one of the major factors causing the symptoms of refractory ascites
ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE. Enzyme catalyzes following reaction:

L-Aspartic Acid+KetoGlutaric Acid = L-Gluta
mic Acid+OxalAcetic Acid.
ATHERECTOMY involves using a catheter having a mechanical cutting tip or a laser to cut (or ablate) a passage through the blockage.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS A disease of the arteries, characterized by a gradual accumulation of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, collagen, elastic fibers, & proteoglycans in the arterial wall. Cholesterol & their esters are major comp. of atherosclerotic lesions (plaques). An increased level of plasma cholesterol & an increase in the major cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein (LDL) are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. A primary cause of atherosclerosis appears to be a deficiency of LDL membrane receptors. As a result, LDL particles are not removed efficiently from the blood &, therefore, have increased chance of invading the lining of the arteries & participating in plaque formation
ATOM ECONOMY (Green Chemistry) one of the key principles of green chemistry, is one of the primary metrics that chemists and chemical engineers can use to guide their work. Introduced by Stanford University chemistry professor Barry M. Trost in 1991, the concept holds that synthetic methods should be designed for maximum incorporation of all reagents into the final product. In other words, atom economy tracks how much of what is put into a pot ends up in the product. Selectivity is an important component of atom economy.

Ideal atom economy would be 100%: No protecting groups would be used and no by-products would be generated. Thus elimination and substitution reactions are less green and should be either reworked or replaced in favor of rearrangements, additions, or other concerted reactions. Trost recently reiterated the concept of atom economy and the high impact it can have in chemical synthesis [Acc. Chem. Res., 35, 695 (2002)].

ATRIAL FIBRILLATION a condition prevalent in the elderly that is characterized by irregular contractions of the cardiac atria, can cause clot-induced strokes.
ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT The heart is divided into four separate chambers. The upper chambers, or atria, are divided by a wall called the atrial septum.
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in that septum. Atrial septal defects are one of the most common heart defects, and are caused by incomplete growth of the septal wall during fetal development. When an atrial septal defect is present, blood flows through the hole, usually from the left atrium to the right atrium. This increases the blood volume in the right atrium, which causes more blood to be pumped to the lungs. This short circuit of blood flow is inefficient for providing circulation to the body
ATRIUM Upper Chamber of Heart
ATROPOISOMERISM The chirality caused by the inability of molecular groups to rotate freely about single bonds
ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTANCE (FTIR SPECTROSCOPY) in which an IR beam is reflected from the surfaces of an ATR crystal as the beam propagates along the length of the crystal. The IR spectrum of a thin sample--for example, a solid film or a thin layer of liquid--in contact with the crystal can be probed with this method because as the light bounces off the crystal surfaces, it penetrates the film slightly.
AUTISM brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood; affects three crucial areas of development: communication, social interaction, and creative or imaginative play
AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS also referred to as chronic active hepatitis, a disease which causes a person's body to reject its own liver
AUTOLOGOUS BONE MARROW TRANSPLANT It is a form of treatment for certain types of cancer like lynphomas, leukemia & multiple myeloma & consists of following steps
(a) Patient receives a stimulant that increa
ses the number of stem cells circulating
in blood
(b) Patient enters into a kidney dialysis-li
ke machine, which filters the blood & re
moves the reproductive cells, that are
renewable in human body
(c) The cells are kept in refrigerator
(d) Patient is subjected to chemotherapy, ge
nerally 30 times more intense as usual,
to kill patient's diseased bone marrow
(e) The refrigerator kept cells are returned
to patient's blood, & with circulation
forming new healthy bone marrow
AUTOMOBILE CATALYTIC CONVERTER (Pt) Carmakers often purchase Pt hand them over to catalyst companies, which formulate them with mixed-metal oxides and other materials to create a washcoat. This washcoat is sprayed onto a bricklike ceramic substrate. Another manufacturer then crams this brick into a metal canister, making a catalytic converter that is attached to the exhaust system
AZETIDIN Cyclobutane ring in which one CH2 substituted by NH